How does thermal imaging work

A thermal imaging device creates images by translating infrared radiation into visible light. Unlike a traditional photograph, a thermal image reveals different temperature ranges. By highlighting contrasting levels of heat, you can see during day and night time hours as well as during difficult conditions like bad weather, fire, or within thick vegetation. Thermal technology often comes in the form of an infrared camera, monocular, or scope.

How much does a thermal imaging device cost?

Thermal imaging devices are expensive because they use complex image sensors for infrared imaging, but are designed for intuitive use. On the low end, you can expect to pay a few hundred bucks, and on the high end, tens of thousands of dollars. However, you can find inexpensive alternatives like a FLIR attachment for IOS or Android smartphones.

The difference between an inexpensive and expensive IR camera is features and image quality. The price usually increases when the infrared camera has things like high-resolution imagery, a high refresh rate, high pixel count, LCD monitor, WiFi connectivity, ergonomic design, and rechargeable and extended battery.

What can a thermal imaging device see?

Looking through a thermal imaging device, you’ll see contrasting levels of heat of the objects in the camera’s field of view. The temperature differences are identified by colors and shades. A standard thermal image, or thermograph, uses shades of yellow, red, green, and blue, but many people prefer using a grayscale.

In the image, you’ll see the heat signatures of whatever is in view. High temperatures will appear as hotspots and cooler temperatures will appear dark. You’ll use the hotspots and other reference points like the shape of the object and other objects in view to determine what you’re looking at. However, the level of detail will vary depending on the quality of the camera. Infrared cameras with higher resolution or megapixels will show greater detail.

Unlike night vision, a thermal imaging device needs absolutely no light to operate. That’s because a thermal image sensor picks up on infrared wavelengths, or heat, which is naked to the human eye.

Also, what you see depends on what you’re looking for. Thermal imaging cameras help a variety of professionals conduct temperature screenings in real-time. This might mean conducting an energy audit of a building, finding a faulty HVAC system, automotive repair, firefighting, or law enforcement looking for a missing hiker during a search and rescue mission.

Can thermal imaging cameras see through clothes?

Yes, but maybe not in the way you’d think. A visible light camera will show you objects as they appear in visible light while a thermal camera shows you their heat signatures. In other words, if an object doesn’t emit much heat it might not appear in the image. So in this sense, the thermal camera will detect the heat of your chest, but not the thin cotton shirt covering it.

Buy a Thermal Imaging Device on OpticsPlanet

On OpticsPlanet, we carry a range of high performance thermal imaging cameras, scopes, and monoculars by top brands like ATN, Pulsar, Armasight, and more. Plus, learn more about thermography, thermal sensors, and camera systems by reading through our library of How-To Guides. Gear up with OpticsPlanet!

How does thermal imaging work

A thermal camera is a non-contact device that detects infrared energy (heat) and converts it into a visual image. Let’s dive into the science of thermal cameras and the invisible world of heat they allow us to see.

How does thermal imaging work

How do thermal cameras work?

Detecting Infrared Waves, Not Visible Light

The first thing to know about thermal cameras is they don’t work like regular cameras. Regular daylight cameras and the human eye both work on the same basic principle: visible light energy hits something, bounces off it, a detector receives the reflected light, and then turns it into an image.

Thermal imagers make pictures from heat, not visible light. Heat (also called infrared or thermal energy) and light are both parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, but a camera that can detect visible light won’t see thermal energy, and vice versa. Thermal cameras capture infrared energy and use the data to create images through digital or analog video outputs.

How does thermal imaging work

Craig Beals explains the electromagnetic spectrum on Invisible Labs.

Inside the Camera

A thermal camera is made up of a lens, a thermal sensor, processing electronics, and a mechanical housing. The lens focuses infrared energy onto the sensor. The sensor can come in a variety of pixel configurations from 80 × 60 to 1280 × 1024 pixels or more. This is the resolution of the camera.

These resolutions are low in comparison to visible light imagers because thermal detectors need to sense energy that has much larger wavelengths than visible light, requiring each sensor element to be significantly larger. As a result, a thermal camera usually has much lower resolution (fewer pixels) than visible sensors of the same mechanical size.

  • Important specifications to consider when choosing a thermal camera include resolution, range, field of view, focus, thermal sensitivity, and spectral range. Click to learn more.
What Are Thermal Cameras Able to Detect?

Heat sensed by an infrared camera can be very precisely measured, allowing for a large variety of applications. A FLIR thermal camera can detect tiny differences in heat—as small as 0.01°C—and display them as shades of grey or with different color palettes.

How does thermal imaging work

The same image with heat differences displayed in the ironbow and white hot palettes.

Everything we encounter in our day-to-day lives gives off thermal energy—even ice. The hotter something is the more thermal energy it emits. This emitted thermal energy is called a “heat signature.” When two objects next to one another have even subtly different heat signatures, they show up quite clearly to a thermal sensor regardless of lighting conditions. This allows thermal cameras to see in complete darkness or smoke-filled environments.

  • Thermal cameras can see many things our eyes or regular cameras can’t see, but can be blocked by some surprising materials. Click to learn more.
What Are Thermal Cameras Used For?

How does thermal imaging work

Thermal imaging and night vision technology is often confused, but each have their own unique features and strengths.

The potential uses for thermal cameras are nearly limitless. Originally developed for surveillance and military operations, thermal cameras are now widely used for building inspections (moisture, insulation, roofing, etc.), firefighting, autonomous vehicles and automatic braking, skin temperature screening, industrial inspections, scientific research, and much more.

The best thermal-imaging cameras allow you to see and measure temperature differences accurately and from a safe distance. They are useful for identifying heat sources in very dark or otherwise obscured places, whether you’re trying to rescue a lost child or to save on your heating bills. Thermal imaging cameras can even help identify infected individuals in a crowd, by picking those that have high feverish temperatures.

An infra-red thermal camera will enable you to explore your world in a whole new way. Beyond the visible spectrum, there is an unseen world of heat radiation. Arty infra-red film photographs aside, the practical uses of the tech traditionally belonged only to military & professional budgets. But now anyone can access thermal imaging. That said, if you simply want to measure temperatures, you may actually want to read our guide to the best infrared thermometers.

For the most part, the cameras work like regular ones, except that image sensor detects invisible IR light and it is translated to a visual “thermogram.” Thermal cameras still have pixels, but starting at lower resolutions (e.g. 80×60 pixels, or 0.003 megapixels). This is enough detail to pick out hotspots in wiring. Higher resolutions are always better, allowing you to work at a distance, as in security and rescue scenarios. (Digitally overlaying the thermal image with a high resolution visible one can make understanding the picture easier, and many devices on this list do that.)

The sensors are also of varying detail – 150mK sensitivity means each pixel takes readings to the nearest 0.15˚C, so lower numbers are better, while it pays to remember that refresh rates aren’t always high; 9Hz is typical. Again this is fine for locating hotspots, but not exactly cinematic.

Thermal imaging works in the dark, or through smoke, but can be fooled by the reflectiveness (emissivity) of a surface. Because IR is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, like visible light, it also has similar properties when it encounters lenses or rain. For professional use, it pays to read up a bit on understanding thermograms, but you’ll understand the basics when you power-on your thermal camera. Depending on the software, you can also take retrospective measurements from the thermal JPEGs.

How does thermal imaging work

Energy auditors may use thermography — or infrared scanning — to detect thermal defects and air leakage in building envelopes.

How Thermographic Inspections Work

Thermography measures surface temperatures by using infrared video and still cameras. These tools see light that is in the heat spectrum. Images on the video or film record the temperature variations of the building’s skin, ranging from white for warm regions to black for cooler areas. The resulting images help the auditor determine whether insulation is needed. They also serve as a quality control tool, to ensure that insulation has been installed correctly.

A thermographic inspection is either an interior or exterior survey. The energy assessor decides which method would give the best results under certain weather conditions. Interior scans are more common, because warm air escaping from a building does not always move through the walls in a straight line. Heat loss detected in one area of the outside wall might originate at some other location on the inside of the wall. Also, it is harder to detect temperature differences on the outside surface of the building during windy weather. Because of this difficulty, interior surveys are generally more accurate because they benefit from reduced air movement.

Thermographic scans are also commonly used with a blower door test running. The blower door helps exaggerate air leaking through defects in the building shell. Such air leaks appear as black streaks in the infrared camera’s viewfinder.

Thermography uses specially designed infrared video or still cameras to make images (called thermograms) that show surface heat variations. This technology has a number of applications. Thermograms of electrical systems can detect abnormally hot electrical connections or components. Thermograms of mechanical systems can detect the heat created by excessive friction. Energy assessors use thermography as a tool to help detect heat losses and air leakage in building envelopes.

How does thermal imaging work

Infrared scanning allows energy assessors to check the effectiveness of insulation in a building’s construction. The resulting thermograms help assessors determine whether a building needs insulation and where in the building it should go. Because wet insulation conducts heat faster than dry insulation, thermographic scans of roofs can often detect roof leaks.

In addition to using thermography during an energy assessment, you should have a scan done before purchasing a house; even new houses can have defects in their thermal envelopes. You may wish to include a clause in the contract requiring a thermographic scan of the house. A thermographic scan performed by a certified technician is usually accurate enough to use as documentation in court proceedings.

Types of Thermographic Inspection Devices

The energy assessor may use one of several types of infrared sensing devices in an on-site inspection.

A spot radiometer (also called a point radiometer) is the simplest. It measures radiation one spot at a time, with a simple meter reading showing the temperature of a given spot. The auditor pans the area with the device and notes the differences in temperature.

A thermal line scanner shows radiant temperature viewed along a line. The thermogram shows the line scan superimposed over a picture of the panned area. This process shows temperature variations along the line.

The most accurate thermographic inspection device is a thermal imaging camera, which produces a 2-dimensional thermal picture of an area showing heat leakage. Spot radiometers and thermal line scanners do not provide the necessary detail for a complete home energy assessment. Infrared film used in a conventional camera is not sensitive enough to detect heat loss.

Preparing for a Thermographic Inspection

To prepare for an interior thermal scan, the homeowner should take steps to ensure an accurate result. This may include moving furniture away from exterior walls and removing drapes. The most accurate thermographic images usually occur when there is a large temperature difference (at least 20°F [14°C]) between inside and outside air temperatures. In northern states, thermographic scans are generally done in the winter. In southern states, however, scans are usually conducted during warm weather with the air conditioner on.

Some times of the year, because of a phenomenon known as “thermal loading,” it might be necessary for the homeowner–depending on local conditions–to create and maintain a specific inside/outside temperature difference for a period of up to four hours before the test will be performed. Running the air conditioner in cooling climates or the central heat in heating climates can do this. Ask the auditor prior to the test if this will be necessary.

How does thermal imaging work

Contact our Team of Experts to get your questions answered!

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How does thermal imaging work

Thermal Imaging Glossary: Terms and Abbreviations

What is Non-Uniformity Correction (NUC) in thermals?

How does it affect price and performance?

Factors that determine the price of a Night Vision Device

Factors that determine the price of a Thermal Imaging Device

How far can you see with a Night Vision Device?

How far can you see with a Thermal Imaging Device?

Night Vision Glossary: Terms and Abbreviations

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How does thermal imaging work

Reveal unseen problems in your home with the inexpensive Seek thermal camera that plugs into a mobile phone Thermal imaging camera, attached to an iPhone, creates a picture from heat. Shop on Amazon Seek Thermal™

Imagine plugging a pocket-sized camera device into your smart phone and then being able to see leaky pipes or ductwork inside walls. That’s what the Seek Thermal™ camera does.

Though thermal imaging previously required special gear costing thousands of dollars, the Seek Thermal™ camera sells for from about $199 to $250 and is available through,, or Home Depot.

Mounted onto an iOS or Android phone, this tiny thermal camera accessory allows you to view, take photos, or shoot video that literally sees heat, revealing pipes, ductwork, insulation, and much more. It can find a myriad of hidden problems around the house.

What This Camera Will Do

“Some of the most cited uses have been around home improvement and construction applications,” said Seek Thermal VP of Sales, Tim LeBeau. “From finding air leaks around doors, HVAC issues, identifying drafty windows, or seeing electrical problems, use in and around the home have allowed thousands of people to see the unseen.”

How does thermal imaging work

  • Identify sources of energy loss, such as leaky windows and doors, broken heating ducts, and insufficient insulation Checking water damaged wall reveals the source of the problem. Seek Thermal™
  • Trace water damage in a wall or across a ceiling to its source
  • Identify the location of pipes and pipe clogs
  • See in the dark. You can scan your yard for people or predators before investigating strange noises or letting your dog out at night—or find your dog or cat in the dark
  • Check the temperature of your barbecue or griddle, determine the propane level in your tank, or instantly measure the surface temperature of food
  • Detect unsafe temperatures around your furnace or water heater.
  • Check the interior temperature of your refrigerator, freezer, or oven.

How the Thermal Camera Works

Thermal imaging converts heat energy into an image that can be seen with the human eye.

The Seek camera, a small, ½-ounce device that can be carried in a pocket, tossed in a toolbox, or clipped to a backpack, plugs into the microUSB connector on Android devices and the Lightning™ connector on iOS devices—so it requires an Android with a microUSB or an iPhone 5 or 6 with the Lightning™ connector.

How does thermal imaging work

Inside the durable magnesium housing is a next-generation thermal sensor and custom chalcogenide lens. It creates true thermal images with a resolution of 206 x 156, or over 32,000 thermal pixels. The Seek Thermal camera will calibrate the temperature of particular spots in the image. Here you can see the coffee in the foreground is 118 degrees F. ©Kit Vandervort, HomeTips

The Seek camera works with a free, easy-to-use app that is available in the Apple App store and on Google Play. The app makes it easy for people to get started, while also including a range of controls substantial enough for serious work.

The Seek app lets you:

Take and share thermal photos and videos

  • Select from four different temperature measurement modes including the ability to automatically highlight everything in the scene that is above or below a specified temperature
  • Select from nine different color palettes that can be applied to temperature measurements
  • Swipe seamlessly back and forth between a regular and a thermal image

Our Product Test

The camera is fun and easy to use. In fact, it’s kind of amazing to see the images that it “sees,” especially when viewing scenes with significant temperature variations. Features include spot metering for measuring temperatures of specific items/areas and a highest/lowest feature that shows the hottest and coldest temperature present in the frame.

Though drawbacks were few, we noted that the camera’s field of view feels limited compared to that of the iPhone. When using the playback/visual representation of the app, it lagged and was choppy. The picture has a low frame rate, especially when the camera is moved quickly.

The product’s packaging is well thought-out and sturdy, making it great for long-term home storage of the camera.

Overall, the camera is small and easily transportable. The portable carry case is heavy duty and seems to provide good protection. The iOS App we tested works well and is easy to use.

HomeTips received a manufacturer sample for testing, but did not receive compensation for this product review.

A time constant has been defined as the time required by a sensor to reach 63.2% of a step change in temperature under a specified set of conditions. Five time constants are required for the sensor to approach 100% of the step change value. An exposed junction thermocouple offers the fastest response. Also, the smaller the probe sheath diameter, the faster the response, but the maximum temperature may be lower. Be aware, however, that sometimes the probe sheath cannot withstand the full temperature range of the thermocouple type. Learn more about thermocouple response times.

What is the difference: thermocouples, RTDs, thermistors and infrared devices?

To select between the sensors above, you should consider the characteristics and costs of the various sensors as well as the available instrumentation. In addition, Thermocouples generally can measure temperatures over wide temperature ranges, inexpensively, and are very rugged, but they are not as accurate or stable as RTD’s and thermistors. RTD’s are stable and have a fairly wide temperature range, but are not as rugged and inexpensive as thermocouples. Since they require the use of electric current to make measurements, RTD’s are subject to inaccuracies from self-heating. Thermistors tend to be more accurate than RTD’s or thermocouples, but they have a much more limited temperature range. They are also subject to selfheating. Infrared Sensors can be used to measure temperatures higher than any of the other devices and do so without direct contact with the surfaces being measured. However, they are generally not as accurate and are sensitive to surface radiation efficiency (or more precisely, surface emissivity). Using fiber optic cables, they can measure surfaces that are not within a direct line of sight.

A proportional integral derivative (PID) controller can be used as a means of controlling temperature, pressure, flow and other process variables. As its name implies, a PID controller combines proportional control with additional integral and derivative adjustments which help the unit automatically compensate for changes in the system.

PID Controller Basics

The purpose of a PID controller is to force feedback to match a setpoint, such as a thermostat that forces the heating and cooling unit to turn on or off based on a set temperature. PID controllers are best used in systems which have a relatively small mass and those which react quickly to changes in the energy added to the process. It is recommended in systems where the load changes often and the controller is expected to compensate automatically due to frequent changes in setpoint, the amount of energy available, or the mass to be controlled.

PID Controller Working Principle

The working principle behind a PID controller is that the proportional, integral and derivative terms must be individually adjusted or “tuned.” Based on the difference between these values a correction factor is calculated and applied to the input. For example, if an oven is cooler than required, the heat will be increased. Here are the three steps:

  1. Proportional tuning involves correcting a target proportional to the difference. Thus, the target value is never achieved because as the difference approaches zero, so too does the applied correction.
  2. Integral tuning attempts to remedy this by effectively cumulating the error result from the “P” action to increase the correction factor. For example, if the oven remained below temperature, “I” would act to increase the head delivered. However, rather than stop heating when the target is reached, “I” attempts to drive the cumulative error to zero, resulting in an overshoot.
  3. Derivative tuning attempts to minimize this overshoot by slowing the correction factor applied as the target is approached.

PID Temperature Controller Working Principle

A proportional integral derivative (PID) controller can be used as a means of controlling temperature, pressure, flow and other process variables. As its name implies, a PID controller combines proportional control with additional integral and derivative adjustments which help the unit automatically compensate for changes in the system.

How does thermal imaging work

Written by Chris Posch, Engineering Director & Product Manager, Automotive at Teledyne FLIR and Izac Assia, Director of Product Management, Foresight. This is one in a series of periodic guest columns by industry thought leaders.

In conditions with clear visibility, autonomous vehicles can now navigate well-marked roads with no surprises.

But developing a system that drives safely at night, in challenging lighting conditions, in adverse weather, and in low-visibility environmental conditions has proven far more difficult. That’s one of the major reasons why we haven’t seen mass adoption of self-driving trucks and cars despite their clear advantages.

Virtually every heavy-duty commercial truck manufacturer and many shippers and motor carriers are now experimenting with autonomous trucks. They recognize how the industry and the economy would benefit from increased automation, such as the use of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and fully self-driving trucks.


Although designers are striving to develop automation systems to increase truck safety and expand the operational situations that autonomous vehicles can safely operate, they still face the challenge of developing a system that can see through dust.

“Dust vision” is one of many situations that infrared thermal cameras increase vehicle safety. Thermal cameras are an option in luxury vehicles today and increasingly they are playing a role in the sensor systems of autonomous vehicles. These cameras detect heat and can “see” just as well in daylight as in total darkness. Visible cameras struggle with visibility in dusty environments, such as on dirt roads or in dust storms, due to reflected light off the dust particles in the air.

In response, ADAS and AV vehicles today usually employ radar sensors as a redundant sensing technology for visible cameras. They work reasonably well in adverse weather conditions, but no radar system today exists with sufficient resolution to reliably classify objects like a camera system can. Normally these radar systems, and LiDAR, work in concert with a camera system to tell range, and in some cases the speed of objects. However, radar and lidar are not well suited for delineating the difference between a living thing, what drivers want to avoid most, and an inanimate object. This classification capability is normally left to visible cameras. In the case of these dusty environments and other challenging lighting situations that visible cameras can struggle to see, thermal cameras really help.


Various companies, institutions, and government-funded programs have demonstrated that thermal cameras can be used to improve the perception in dusty driving conditions as compared to visible cameras. A large reason for the effectiveness in these challenging, dusty conditions is that thermal cameras detect long wave infrared (LWIR) energy and do not require light, sun, or headlights to illuminate the object. A thermal camera ‘sees’ by detecting the heat that is emitted by the object. In dusty conditions, both thermal cameras and radar usually have the performance edge over visible cameras and lidar sensors.

Furthermore, dusty conditions and dust storms aren’t always predictable. In dry regions, like on the U.S. Interstate 10 highway running through Arizona, there are occasions where strong winds can blow dust into the air and partially obstruct the driver’s and the visible-camera-based ADAS system’s ability to see what’s ahead or behind. Meanwhile, there are many other environmental conditions that a thermal camera can help with besides dust, including most fog, darkness, sun or headlight glare, dark tunnels, rain, snow, and other low-contrast situations.


To further help drivers and ADAS systems, stereo imaging can help improve the perception accuracy of thermal cameras. Stereo imaging consists of comparing a scene’s information from two points of vantage. It is how human eyesight works. Stereo-paired thermal cameras help improve perception through dust, measuring distance by triangulating the cameras with objects in a field of view. How does thermal imaging work

Stereo thermal cameras can dramatically improve obstacle detection and distance measurements within dusty environments day or night. Left image: image from thermal cameras; Right side: image from visible-light cameras. (Photo: Foresight)

Stereoscopic thermal imaging provides increased perception in dusty environments compared to visible cameras, as can be seen in the side-by-side images above. Some companies have focused on stereo pairs and optimizing the ability to reliably provide range data by making the calibration and mounting of such systems much easier. The above image displays captured data from a thermal stereo pair on the left in comparison to a visible-camera stereo pair displayed on the right. The visible cameras fail to detect, classify, and range the vehicle ahead, in comparison to the thermal cameras.


In addition to providing improved driver vision in dusty environments, thermal cameras can be combined with artificial intelligence (AI) or what is now referred to as a trained convolutional neural network (CNN). CNNs enable camera systems to detect and classify objects via software. A CNN can be used with visible cameras or thermal cameras to analyze images in real time for specific characteristics or shapes the system has been trained to detect and classify. Common object classes include pedestrians, cars, trucks, dogs, and bicycles. When paired with stereo vision or radar, the objects are classified/identified along with the respective distances. The ADAS or AV system can therefore make appropriate decisions for an array of situations.


In the case of commercial truckers and other like industries, the cost-verses-benefit of adding thermal cameras to the vehicle is easy to justify and compute. Commercial trucks benefit greatly when they can operate longer and in more types of conditions. In one study, a company’s implementation of thermal cameras on its autonomous trucks afforded it significant productivity increases – up to 30 percent. Adding two thermal cameras in stereo further increases the capability and safety. In dust, blowing sand, and other low-visibility conditions, thermal imaging can play that crucial role, and make roadways and driving in adverse weather conditions safer for all.

C&R Thermal Desktop® enables thermal engineers to create models that range from small components to complete systems. It is general-purpose, which means it is suitable for everything from commercial submarine components to planetary exploration systems. Finite difference and finite element objects are combined with environment definitions in AutoCAD’s 3D design environment. Thermal Desktop creates the node and conduction network, launches SINDA/FLUINT for the solution, and provides post-processing results. Thermal Desktop clearly shows our dedication to giving users the very best in thermal and fluids analysis. It allows you to handle the engineering judgment while it takes care of the grunt work.

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Thermal Analysis from Beginning to End

Thermal Desktop includes all aspects of model creation. Built-in finite difference, finite element, and lumped capacitance objects can be combined in any configuration. Thermal-specific objects such as contact conductance, insulation, heat loads, and heaters can be added to model anything from automotive components to manned spacecraft.

Thermal Desktop provides full parameterization using variables and arbitrarily complex expressions as input rather than hardwired numbers. These variables, called Symbols, allow models to be rapidly manipulated with a few keystrokes, meaning updating or maintaining the model is easy, as is performing sensitivity studies and investigating what-if scenarios. This also provides access to SINDA/FLUINT’s Optimization and Reliability modules and automatic model correlation.How does thermal imaging work

Once the model is ready, Thermal Desktop launches SINDA/FLUINT, and shows the results in a post-processing window. You can visualize the temperatures and heat flows to understand all the nuances of your thermal system. With the optional modules RadCAD and FloCAD, you can see environmental heat rates, pressures, flow rates, and much more. Powerful post-processing tools include automatically determining maximum and minimum temperatures, plotting component temperatures, exporting results to a file for Excel, and even creating a video of a temperature plot through time.

Two seamlessly integrated modules are available with Thermal Desktop. RadCAD calculates radiation heat transfer between components within the model and between the model and the environment. FloCAD adds the capability to model flow circuits, including fans and convective heat transfer. These fluid models integrate with the thermal models and are solved together, enabling accurate modeling of devices such as radiator systems or cryogenic lines.

Thermal Desktop’s capabilities can be expanded even more by adding TD Direct, our advanced meshing software that is easily integrated into Thermal Desktop. TD Direct is ideal for complex geometry (in virtually any CAD format), rapid design interations, fluid volumes for Compartments, pipe centerlines, and many other functions.

Thermal Desktop is used by thermal engineers around the globe. It is not a compromise of many disciplines rolled into a single product; this is nothing but the very best of thermal and fluids analysis. Should you need help learning our software, you will find CRTech is staffed by thermal and fluids engineers who understand your needs and concerns.