How to explain difficult and abstract concepts (the smart way)

As parents, we all want the best for our kids. We want our kids to get the best upbringing, the best education, the best quality of life, and the best financial situation. An important part of raising our kids and giving them a good upbringing is making sure that they grow up to be financially responsible individuals. We are the biggest influence on our children’s development and it’s important that we set good examples and become more transparent about money with our kids. This includes teaching our kids about money.

Monkey See, Monkey Do

An annual study created by T. Rowe Price called Parents, Kids and Money Survey last 2017, showed that parents are likely to pass down good and bad financial habits to their kids. This survey sampled 1,014 parents of 8-14-year-olds in the US, which analyzed parents’ attitudes and behaviours that were associated with kids’ financial habits. The survey found that positive money behaviours and expectations among kids are often associated with parents’ decision to let their kids decide how to save and spend their money on their own, as well as parents becoming good financial models. Negative and troubling money behaviours and habits were also frequently seen on kids who have a troubled history with money.

The good and bad habits that our kids learn and develop come from us, so we have to be more aware of how we discuss and treat money in front of our children.

We are the key to our own kids’ financial success. It’s important that we figure out how to teach our kids about money and how to slowly inculcate the money habits that will accompany them through adulthood.

We have to be diligent when it comes to teaching our kids about money.

We have to start exposing our kids to money and let them participate in small money decisions. That way, they begin to develop a very clear and concrete view of the value of money and how it works.

With the rise of credit card usage and the increasing number of digital and blockchain payments, the notion of currency is becoming more and more abstract. If children are not able to get a grasp of the actual exchange of money and goods, then they will develop the idea that money is endless and easy to come by.

Also, our children do not see us save when all our money interactions are digital. They do not see our salaries being wired to our accounts, and part of that being wired to our savings account. These distant digital-only transactions make it all the more important to create interactions around money at home for children to observe and copy.

Get Started on Teaching Your Kids

Forbes.com created a simple guide on how to slowly introduce your kids to money including how to slowly introduce these concepts in everyday practice and everyday encounters.

Ages 3-5

The time you start teaching your kids about the concept of delayed gratification. You teach them that whenever they want something that they don’t have the means to purchase for, they will need to wait and save up for it.

Ages 6-10

You show kids that money is a limited resource. This is when you need them to participate in actions that will allow them to practice transacting with a limited amount of money and making purchase decisions based on the budget you set.

Ages 11-13

You can begin to teach more abstract concepts like compounding interest. At Smart Way To Start we believe that it is important to explain the notion of interest even earlier – and help children as early on as possible that money in a piggy bank can’t grow. You can only fill a piggy bank but the money inside it does not grow. For that you need a savings account, so your money can be put to work. We think it is very important that children learn this from a young age, because every year counts when you are compounding interests. The earlier you start, the more money you earn.

Introducing early the notion of interest is key, because once children understand it they can also understand why debt can be dangerous. Compound interest on money you owe can make the amount owned increase very rapidly – especially with high interest rates on consumer debt. So when you children are teenagers and might receive their first credit card, It is very important to discuss responsible credit card ownership and finance charges.

Ages 14 and above

At this point, your child would be reaping from the fruits of the financial teachings you’ve been imparting since age 3, and the best you can do is to continue to be open about finances and money with your child.

If you want to learn more about how to slowly introduce your kids to money, I’ve provided 5 easy tips on this article.

If you’re interested to receive Monthly Money Tips, an email series that will help parents like you raise financially savvy children, you can sign up through the link below:

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Videos are beneficial tools to help students digest information. It’s often said of pictures that a single picture is worth a thousand words. How about, then, an almost literal combination of thousands of pictures? An educational video is one of the best ways to help students understand difficult concepts.

In higher institutions, both in and out of the United States, the use of videos has been on the rise in all fields of discipline. This is especially true for literacies that have more abstract concepts such as sciences (quantum mechanics, etc.), languages, humanities and the arts. These and more courses would greatly benefit from having concepts relayed to the student via both audio and visual feedback.

Of all the modern concepts used to better learning experience, the video has been established to be the most intensive, and by extension more effective than most other technological (and traditional) means.

Why use an educational video?

Regardless of whether you stream videos from YouTube or straight from your personal website where you host videos through private hosting, the students will experience several benefits. Research carried out in various institutions worldwide has shown some of the benefits accrued include:

  1. Reduce leaning load – well-developed videos with useful animations have been demonstrated to improve understanding and boost retention of learned information. Additionally, a video is very active for teaching difficult learning concepts.
  2. Multimodal learning – introducing video to the normal learning process induces a type of learning known as multimodal learning. This is a model of learning where different types of learning are incorporated together. This model has been observed to lead in more gains in learning as compared to traditional methods.
  3. Increasing engagement – not every student likes to hunch over their books in order to study. Using a video presentation will lead to helping such students engage through the use of images and animation. Established video engagement is also easier to attain and retain than getting students to concentrate in class.

Keep in mind, however, that integrating a video presentation doesn’t improve the quality of education students receive overnight. It’s still subject to the methodology the teacher chooses to adopt. Higher quality education thus begins with better teaching practices from the teachers themselves.

Teacher videos

One note, the teacher could find resources they believe would benefit the student’s learning experience. Such videos can either be salvaged off popular video hosting sites such as YouTube or created manually.

Taking students on virtual field trips

Courses that require practical knowledge such as visiting industries and seeing machines would see significant gains from creating great videos without leaving the classroom. This should especially prove useful if circumstances prevent visitation to such sites. Give a guided tour of the ISS, the Seven Wonders of the World or even places long gone like the Colosseum in Rome in all its glory.

Introduce a new class or unit

Introducing something new into the learning process can be harrowing. When beginning a new unit, for instance, expose the students to concepts they are going to be learning via videos. There are no guarantees students are going to be excited about everything that will be thrown at them, especially in more ‘difficult’ units such as trigonometry. It’s a pretty good way, however, to build anticipation and retain the concentration of the student.

It bears nothing, however, that not every unit should use a video presentation for the sake of it. Does using a video address the concepts you wish to teach more effectively?

Various parts of any lecture translate correctly in a video but other elements such mathematical solving problems demand more effort on your part. Other parts that also warrant physical effort from you include engaging the student in discussions (or possibly using Google Hangouts for conferencing). Whereas video engagement is a definite plus, for the most part, you should think carefully about where in your course an educational video can be adopted.

Recording in-class activities

Almost half of every single student’s day is spent in school. It would be in the parents’ best interest to be informed of what the students have been up. One way to do this would be by photographing physical field trips or other such activities and compiling them into an exciting video. For instance, this helps parents with language barriers feel included in the learning process.

Student videos

Video research projects or assignments

For their research projects, students can create a video of relevant information and show it to you rather than assigning a paper. On the other hand, you can also give the option of either a document or a video. Letting the students exploit their strengths can also help them ease into the learning process, and they learn what they are capable of. Once again, it bears consideration how plausible it will be for the student to create a video with regards to the topic at hand.

A good example would be adding a little pizazz to the traditional school book report by encouraging users to create ‘trailers’ of sorts. Here, they can discuss the central themes of the story and feature the main plot points. They can partner with each other or even seek the help of professionals to curate their content. The videos can then be uploaded to a video hosting site such as YouTube or Dailymotion.

Conclusion

Videos are a known powerful medium of passing on information to the student, but they need to be created with an eye for effectiveness. Depending on the platform you choose to use, for instance, you could even integrate a video call to action, requiring students to interact and answer questions.

Along the way, be sure to remember that video isn’t a magic solution to the ineffectiveness of current teaching solutions. It’s merely meant to supplement them and make more clear aspects that would benefit from visual feedback and detailed analysis. As you change how you approach the education process via an educational video, ensure you have the right material to support learning all the way through.

You study very hard for your exams yet you are disappointed with the results. You question your efforts and wonder why you even bother to study? How to study smart? Most students have experienced this and realize that studying smart is more effective than studying hard. Most student will complain that they have not covered all topics and study a few days before the exam. One of the things I have observed with the smartest students in high school was that they study as they received their notes. This allows them to cover everything they need to know before the exam is even created. The earlier you study, the better.

Before you start studying you have to determine what type of learner you are? If you are visual learning you will incorporate pictures and diagrams during study sessions. This will help you to study faster. If you are easily distracted then take breaks during the study session and reenergize. If you learn quickly from someone else then joining a study group will be the best option for you. Smart students follow good study tips and they are able to ace their exams. This article will discuss some of the best study tips.

Tips on how to study smart

Review often

Develop a study timetable to review your notes each day after class. You will minimize your study session when it comes to preparing for exams. This will also prevent you from cramming and trying to learn all the notes you have days before the exam. Reviewing often helps you to be prepared for any test even pop quiz. You also help the brain to store new information in long-term memory. Those who cram for exam usually forget the information they study because it was stored in short term memory.

Understanding is the key

Some students try to memorize everything they read without trying to understand. This puts them in a difficult position especially when the exams questions are structured in a way that requires the application of knowledge. Students end up failing a test that they claim they studied hard for but the truth is they never understood the materials. If you study to understand you can answer any question on a particular topic. Once you understand a concept you can explain it very well.

Use different materials

Do not rely on notes from the lecture or from your book. Use other materials apart from your notes. You will get a thorough understanding of the topic when you use more than one sources. You can also learn concepts that may be missing from your notes. It allows you to prepare for the examinations thoroughly. The library contains information on most of the topics that are taught in schools. Make sure you take a trip to the library.

Use flash cards

Using flash cards can improve memorization. It will help you to remember key terms and important concepts. Make sure you know the topics to study for by consulting your professors. You condense a large amount of notes using flash cards. You can also draw diagrams to help you to remember important details. It gives you a quick revision a couple minutes before the test. This method is really efficient because it is easy to carry around and you can study anytime and anywhere.

Take breaks

Breaks are important during study session because it helps you to retain information better. Studying for prolong period will make you feel overwhelm and your brain will explode. Well not literally, but feeding the brain too much information will cause congestion. Give your brain time to absorb new materials. You can study for thirty minutes and then take a break for 10 minutes. Resume and repeat until your study session is over. You can do something enjoyable during the break or just relax. Some people like to listen to soothing music or talk to a friend. It all depends on you.

Teach someone else

Teaching someone else can help you to understand difficult concepts. In order to teach something, you have to know it yourself. While you are teaching you learn as you are forced to express information in your own words. You may have to repeat yourself which reinforces the information. Your student will ask questions and you have to analyze their questions and answer them. Teaching deepens your understanding of the subject.

How to explain difficult and abstract concepts (the smart way)

Join a study group

Joining a study group has saved me during my college years. Everybody could share their views and opinion and a rich discussion could develop among the group. Sometimes one person will know more about a topic than the rest and share it with others. Each topic could be explored by more than one brain. You will be able to tackle complex questions on a past paper as a group. A study group can also make learning and study fun. You are also motivated to study in a group.

Test yourself

Testing yourself can help you to see if you understand the information. It will help to gauge which area you need to focus on more. Sometimes you think you know the concept but when you try to answer a question you find it challenging. Testing yourself help you to understand your topic very good. You can use online test and even past papers. Some teachers will give students access to past papers. You can test yourself under exam conditions to help with your time management.

Connect what you know to the concepts you are trying to learn

During study sessions, you can connect your notes to concepts you already know. It helps you to remember everything correctly. Using analogy can save you and help you to learn the materials faster. You will remember it easily during the examination. You can use acronyms to help you remember concepts. For example, BOMDAS is used in Mathematics to solve complex mathematical problems. A student will remember that subtraction should be done last for any mathematical problem.

Take care of yourself

You should always eat right and get sufficient sleep. Students tend to disrupt their sleeping schedule during the examination period. They also neglect their diet. You will retain more information in a healthy state so eat well and get good rest when you are studying for an exam. You should get at least 8 hours of sleep. Eat food that will enhance brain power such as fish, berries, egg, and broccoli. You can also take supplements as well.

Wrapping it up

Studying smart help you to retain a large amount of information and learn information quickly. You should try to understand every concept you are trying to learn. Use different materials and notes to get a thorough understanding. Study sessions should include break so your brain can recharge from the pressure. Easier said than done but do not wait until you have exams to start studying.

How to explain difficult and abstract concepts (the smart way)

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  • TESOL Diploma, Trinity College London
  • M.A., Music Performance, Cologne University of Music
  • B.A., Vocal Performance, Eastman School of Music

Teaching grammar in an ESL / EFL setting is quite different from teaching grammar to native speakers. This short guide points to important questions that you should ask yourself to prepare to teach grammar in your own classes.

Important Questions to Address

The important question that needs to be answered is: how do I teach grammar? In other words, how do I help students learn the grammar they need. This question is deceptively easy. At first look, you might think that teaching grammar is just a matter of explaining grammar rules to students. However, teaching grammar effectively is a much more complicated matter. There are a number of questions that need to be addressed for each class:

  • What are the objectives of this class?Is the class preparing for an exam? Is the class improving their English for business purposes? Is the class preparing for summer holidays? etc.
    • The answer to this question is important as it will help you decide on how much grammar really needs to be taught. If students are preparing for a Cambridge Exam then grammar will play a large role in your lesson plans. On the other hand, if you are teaching a business class, linguistic formulas may play a larger role as you provide the learners with standard phrases for written documents, participating in meetings, etc.
  • What type of learning background do the learners have?Are the students at school? Have they not studied for a number of years? Are they familiar with grammar terminology?
    • Adults who have not been attending school for a number of years are likely to find grammar explanations confusing while as students who are currently studying will probably be much more adept at understanding grammar charts, expressions, etc.
  • What learning materials and resources are available?Do you have the latest student workbooks? Do you have no workbooks at all? Is there a computer in the classroom?
    • The more learning resources you have the easier it will be for you to employ different strategies when teaching your students grammar. For example, a group of students who like using computers could use the computer to study a certain grammar task while another group who prefers spoken explanations might prefer to have you explain the point with a number of examples. Obviously, the more varieties of learning opportunities the better your chances are that each student will be able to learn the grammar point well.
  • What kind of learning style does each student have?Is the learner comfortable with standard right brain learning techniques (logical charts, study sheets, etc.)? Does the learner work better with listening and repeating exercises?
    • This is one of the most difficult aspects of teaching – especially teaching grammar. If you have a class of learners with similar learning styles, you can afford to use a similar approach. However, if you have a class of mixed learning styles then you need to try to provide instruction using as many different methods as possible.

Once you have answered these questions you can more expertly approach the question of how you are going to provide the class with the grammar they need. In other words, each class is going to have different grammar needs and goals and it is up to the teacher to determine these goals and provide the means with which to meet them.

Inductive and Deductive

First, a quick definition: Inductive is known as a ‘bottom-up’ approach. In other words, students discovering grammar rules while working through exercises. For example, a reading comprehension which includes a number of sentences describing what a person has done up to that period in time.

After doing the reading comprehension, the teacher could begin to ask questions such as: How long has he done this or that? Has he ever been to Paris? etc. and then follow with When did he go to Paris?

To help the students inductively understand the difference between the simple past and the present perfect, these questions could be followed with which questions spoke about a definite time in the past? Which questions asked about the person’s general experience? etc.

Deductive is known as a ‘top-down’ approach. This is the standard teaching approach that has a teacher explaining rules to the students. For example, the present perfect is made up of the auxiliary verb ‘have’ plus the past participle. It is used to express an action which has begun in the past and continues to the present moment, etc.

Grammar Lesson Outline

A teacher needs in the first place to facilitate learning. That is why we recommend providing students with inductive learning exercises. However, there are certainly moments when the teacher needs to explain grammar concepts to the class.

Generally, we recommend the following class structure when teaching grammar skills:

  • Begin with an exercise, game, listening, etc. that introduces the grammar concept.
  • Ask students questions that will help them identify the grammar concept to be discussed.
  • Follow with another exercise that more specifically focuses on the grammar concept, but takes an inductive approach. This could be a reading exercise with questions and responses in the structures that are being taught.
  • Check responses, ask students to explain the grammar concept that has been introduced.
  • At this point introduce teaching explanations as a way of clearing up misunderstandings.
  • Provide an exercise which focuses on the correct construction of the grammar point. This could be an exercise such as a fill the gap, cloze or tense conjugation activity.
  • Ask students to once again explain the concept.

As you can see, the teacher is facilitating students to do their own learning rather than using the ‘top-down’ approach of dictating rules to the class.

You study very hard for your exams yet you are disappointed with the results. You question your efforts and wonder why you even bother to study? How to study smart? Most students have experienced this and realize that studying smart is more effective than studying hard. Most student will complain that they have not covered all topics and study a few days before the exam. One of the things I have observed with the smartest students in high school was that they study as they received their notes. This allows them to cover everything they need to know before the exam is even created. The earlier you study, the better.

Before you start studying you have to determine what type of learner you are? If you are visual learning you will incorporate pictures and diagrams during study sessions. This will help you to study faster. If you are easily distracted then take breaks during the study session and reenergize. If you learn quickly from someone else then joining a study group will be the best option for you. Smart students follow good study tips and they are able to ace their exams. This article will discuss some of the best study tips.

Tips on how to study smart

Review often

Develop a study timetable to review your notes each day after class. You will minimize your study session when it comes to preparing for exams. This will also prevent you from cramming and trying to learn all the notes you have days before the exam. Reviewing often helps you to be prepared for any test even pop quiz. You also help the brain to store new information in long-term memory. Those who cram for exam usually forget the information they study because it was stored in short term memory.

Understanding is the key

Some students try to memorize everything they read without trying to understand. This puts them in a difficult position especially when the exams questions are structured in a way that requires the application of knowledge. Students end up failing a test that they claim they studied hard for but the truth is they never understood the materials. If you study to understand you can answer any question on a particular topic. Once you understand a concept you can explain it very well.

Use different materials

Do not rely on notes from the lecture or from your book. Use other materials apart from your notes. You will get a thorough understanding of the topic when you use more than one sources. You can also learn concepts that may be missing from your notes. It allows you to prepare for the examinations thoroughly. The library contains information on most of the topics that are taught in schools. Make sure you take a trip to the library.

Use flash cards

Using flash cards can improve memorization. It will help you to remember key terms and important concepts. Make sure you know the topics to study for by consulting your professors. You condense a large amount of notes using flash cards. You can also draw diagrams to help you to remember important details. It gives you a quick revision a couple minutes before the test. This method is really efficient because it is easy to carry around and you can study anytime and anywhere.

Take breaks

Breaks are important during study session because it helps you to retain information better. Studying for prolong period will make you feel overwhelm and your brain will explode. Well not literally, but feeding the brain too much information will cause congestion. Give your brain time to absorb new materials. You can study for thirty minutes and then take a break for 10 minutes. Resume and repeat until your study session is over. You can do something enjoyable during the break or just relax. Some people like to listen to soothing music or talk to a friend. It all depends on you.

Teach someone else

Teaching someone else can help you to understand difficult concepts. In order to teach something, you have to know it yourself. While you are teaching you learn as you are forced to express information in your own words. You may have to repeat yourself which reinforces the information. Your student will ask questions and you have to analyze their questions and answer them. Teaching deepens your understanding of the subject.

How to explain difficult and abstract concepts (the smart way)

Join a study group

Joining a study group has saved me during my college years. Everybody could share their views and opinion and a rich discussion could develop among the group. Sometimes one person will know more about a topic than the rest and share it with others. Each topic could be explored by more than one brain. You will be able to tackle complex questions on a past paper as a group. A study group can also make learning and study fun. You are also motivated to study in a group.

Test yourself

Testing yourself can help you to see if you understand the information. It will help to gauge which area you need to focus on more. Sometimes you think you know the concept but when you try to answer a question you find it challenging. Testing yourself help you to understand your topic very good. You can use online test and even past papers. Some teachers will give students access to past papers. You can test yourself under exam conditions to help with your time management.

Connect what you know to the concepts you are trying to learn

During study sessions, you can connect your notes to concepts you already know. It helps you to remember everything correctly. Using analogy can save you and help you to learn the materials faster. You will remember it easily during the examination. You can use acronyms to help you remember concepts. For example, BOMDAS is used in Mathematics to solve complex mathematical problems. A student will remember that subtraction should be done last for any mathematical problem.

Take care of yourself

You should always eat right and get sufficient sleep. Students tend to disrupt their sleeping schedule during the examination period. They also neglect their diet. You will retain more information in a healthy state so eat well and get good rest when you are studying for an exam. You should get at least 8 hours of sleep. Eat food that will enhance brain power such as fish, berries, egg, and broccoli. You can also take supplements as well.

Wrapping it up

Studying smart help you to retain a large amount of information and learn information quickly. You should try to understand every concept you are trying to learn. Use different materials and notes to get a thorough understanding. Study sessions should include break so your brain can recharge from the pressure. Easier said than done but do not wait until you have exams to start studying.

How to explain difficult and abstract concepts (the smart way)

How to explain difficult and abstract concepts (the smart way)

The first thing journal editors and reviewers will see upon receiving your research paper is the title, and will immediately form a view on what they should expect in your research paper. Moreover, the tile of your research paper is the only aspect that will be freely available to readers through search engines or indexing databases. It is therefore imperative that you write a clear, persuasive title that leads readers to know more about your research.

In a hurry? We have just the thing for you — The following 3-minute interactive video will give you a quick summary of the 5 simple steps to follow while writing an effective research paper title.

You can also go on to read the rest of the article to deepen your understanding of which best practices to follow while writing a captivating, yet informative title for your research paper.

The following example will help you understand how you can go about writing a good title for your research paper in 5 simple steps:

STEP 1

Ask yourself these questions and make note of the answers:

  • What is my paper about?

My paper studies whether X therapy improves the cognitive function of patients suffering from dementia.

  • What techniques/ designs were used?

It was a randomized trial.

  • Who/what is studied?

I studied 40 cases from six cities in Japan.

  • What were the results?

There was an improvement in the cognitive function of patients.

Topics under this stage

Academic Writing

Research Paper Structure

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I want to write the background of my study. Can you give me any tips or guidelines?

How to explain difficult and abstract concepts (the smart way)

The introduction of your research paper should provide a background of the study. This includes an explanation of the area of your research to set context for the problem at hand. This includes a detailed literature review in which you explain what previous studies state about the topic, discuss recent developments on the topic, and identify the gap in literature that has led to your study. You should also explain the problem that the study addresses and give a brief account of the history of the problem mentioning whether it has been addressed in any form before. This will lead up to the research question and the aims of your study.

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How to explain difficult and abstract concepts (the smart way)

Answered by Editage Insights on 30 Mar, 2017

Here’s a succinct, up-to-date summary of the physiological processes that take place in the human body, written in a straightforward and easy-to-understand manner. Derived from Berne et al.’s more lengthy text, Physiology, 5th Edition, it concisely and efficiently covers all of the most need-to-know concepts in the field. Updates include discussions of how the most recent findings in molecular biology and genetics affect our knowledge of physiology. A wealth of case examples, full-color artwork, review questions with answers, and boxes, tables, and graphs help readers to easily and thoroughly master the material.

The smart way to study!
Elsevier titles with STUDENT CONSULT will help you master difficult concepts and study more efficiently in print and online! Perform rapid searches. Integrate bonus content from other disciplines. Download text to your handheld device. And a lot more. Each STUDENT CONSULT title comes with full text online, a unique image library, case studies, USMLE style questions, and online note-taking to enhance your learning experience.

  • Provides shaded “clinical boxes” to demonstrate abstract concepts’ relevance to human physiological phenomena.
  • Offers case examples that show how physiological processes respond to various stimuli or to pathological processes.
  • Delivers hundreds of full-color illustrations that make complex physiological principles easy to grasp quickly.
  • Includes abundant graphs, figures, and tables that display information at a glance.
  • Presents review questions and answers that allow readers to evaluate their comprehension.

Here’s a succinct, up-to-date summary of the physiological processes that take place in the human body, written in a straightforward and easy-to-understand manner. Derived from Berne et al.’s more lengthy text, Physiology, 5th Edition, it concisely and efficiently covers all of the most need-to-know concepts in the field. Updates include discussions of how the most recent findings in molecular biology and genetics affect our knowledge of physiology. A wealth of case examples, full-color artwork, review questions with answers, and boxes, tables, and graphs help readers to easily and thoroughly master the material.

The smart way to study!
Elsevier titles with STUDENT CONSULT will help you master difficult concepts and study more efficiently in print and online! Perform rapid searches. Integrate bonus content from other disciplines. Download text to your handheld device. And a lot more. Each STUDENT CONSULT title comes with full text online, a unique image library, case studies, USMLE style questions, and online note-taking to enhance your learning experience.

  • Provides shaded “clinical boxes” to demonstrate abstract concepts’ relevance to human physiological phenomena.
  • Offers case examples that show how physiological processes respond to various stimuli or to pathological processes.
  • Delivers hundreds of full-color illustrations that make complex physiological principles easy to grasp quickly.
  • Includes abundant graphs, figures, and tables that display information at a glance.
  • Presents review questions and answers that allow readers to evaluate their comprehension.