This page is an advertiser-supported excerpt of the book, Power Excel 2010-2013 from MrExcel – 567 Excel Mysteries Solved. If you like this topic, please consider buying the entire e-book.

Problem: I have a room that is 10 feet x 10 feet x 10 feet. How do I find the volume of the cube?

Strategy: The formula for volume is width x length x height. In this case, it is 10 x 10 x 10, or 10 3 . In Excel, the caret symbol (also known as “the little hat,” or “the symbol when you press Shift 6″) is used to indicate exponents. Here’s how you use it to find the volume of your room:

- In cell B2, enter 10.
- In cell B3, enter the formula =B2^3.

The result will be 1,000 cubic feet of volume in the room.

- The caret raises a number to a power.

##### For more resources for Microsoft Excel

- Microsoft Excel 2019 VBA and Macros
- MrExcel 2021 – Unmasking Excel
- Power Excel With MrExcel – 2019 Edition

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Exponential Excel function in excel is also known as the EXP function in excel which is used to calculate the exponent raised to the power of any number we provide, in this function the exponent is constant and is also known as the base of the natural algorithm, this is an inbuilt function in excel.

## Exponential Function in Excel

Excel has an exponential excel function called EXP function, which is categorized as a Math/Trig Function that returns a numeric value, which is equal to **e** raised to the power of a given number.

### Exponential Excel Formula

*Exp function in Excel takes only one input, which is required; it is the exponent value raised to base e.*

### What is e in Mathematics?

The number e is an irrational number, whose value is constant and is approximately equal to 2.7182. This is number is also known as *Euler’s Number**.* The value of the number is calculated by the formula.

### How to Use EXP Function in Excel? (with Examples)

Like LOG function is used when the rate of change in the data increases or decreases quickly; the EXP function in Excel is used when data values rise or fall at increasingly higher rates.

In Excel, while working non-linear trend lines (set of points on an exponential excel function’s graph) or non-linear graphs, the EXP function in Excel is widely used.

An Exponential function in Excel is also used to calculate the growth and decay of bacteria and microorganisms.

### Exponential in Excel Example #1

Suppose we have a sample for organic solutions, the lab examiner at time t=0 hours puts one hundred bacteria into the solution in order to determine the suitable growth medium. After 5 hours, the examiner needs to calculate the count of bacteria. The growth rate of the bacteria in the given organic solution is 0.25/hour

After 5 hours, the total number of bacteria in the given organic solution will be near around 129 in a count.

### Exponential in Excel Example #2

We have a function *f(x)* that is an exponential function in excel given as *y = ae -2x* where ‘a’ is a constant, and for the given value of x, we need to find the values of y and plot the 2D exponential functions graph.

Plotting the graph of the exponential function on the x-y axis, we have the following graph for the above-given function and values

### Exponential in Excel Example #3

Suppose we have the population data of 5 different cities given for the year 2001, and the rate of growth of the population in the given cities for 15 years was approximately 0.65%. We need to calculate the latest population of the given cities after 15 years.

For the rate of growth, we have the formula,

**P = P _{0}*e rt**

Where **P** is the latest population (which we will calculate in this case)

**P _{0}** is the initial population

**r** is the rate of growth

**t** is the time

Here, in this case, we have to calculate P for five different cities with the given rate of growth of 0.65

So in order to calculate the rate of growth of the population, we will use the above population growth formula

In Excel to calculate the Exponential power, we will further use the Exponential Function in Excel, so the exponential formula will be

**=B2*EXP($F$1*$F$2)**

Applying the same exponential formula in reference to other cities, we have

**Output:**

The Exponential function in Excel has also been used in the regressions linear modeling in the statistics.

**Things to Remember About Exponential Function (EXP) in Excel**

The Exponential function in Excel is often used with the Log function; for example, in case, if we want to find the rate of growth or decay, in that case, we will use the EXP and the LOG function together.

We can also use the POWER function in place of the Exponential function in Excel, but the only difference is the measurement precision. While using the POWER function, we can provide the of e as 2.71 or maybe up to 3-4 decimal places; however, the EXP function in excel, in general, takes the value of e to 9 decimal places.

So, if we are calculating an Exponential in excel Series, of dealing with non-linear exponential functions graph in which we have the Exponential value, it is better to use the EXP function in excel instead of the POWER function POWER Function POWER function calculates the power of a given number or base. To use this function you can use the keyword =POWER( in a cell and provide two arguments one as number and another as power. read more .

EXP function in excel always takes the numeric value as an input; if we provide any other input other than the numeric value, it generates #NAME? Error.

While dealing with the complex Exponents, for example, =EXP(-(2.2/9.58)^2), one should be careful with the brackets, if we mess up with the brackets, the output may differ from the actual output, so it should be =EXP(-((2,2/9,58)^2))

### Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Exponential Function in Excel. Here we discuss the Exponential Formula and how to use EXP in Excel along with Exponential Function examples and downloadable excel templates. You may also look at these useful functions in excel –

As your business grows, you’ll find that you need Microsoft Excel 2010 more and more to compute important numbers for your business. One Excel function that can come in extremely handy is the PERCENTILE.EXC function, which will look through a given set of numbers and find the exact number that breaks the data set into your chosen percentiles. Excel also includes the PERCENTILE.INC function, which is slightly less accurate but needed in certain situations.

Open a new Microsoft Excel 2010 worksheet.

Click on cell “A1” and enter the values in your data set into the cells in column A.

Click on cell “B1.”

Enter the following formula into the cell, excluding quotes: “=PERCENTILE.EXC(A1:AX,k)” where “X” is the last row in column “A” where you have entered data, and “k” is the percentile value you are looking for. The percentile value must be between zero and one, so if you wanted to find the value for the 70th percentile, you would use “0.7” as your percentile value.

Press “Enter” to complete your formula. The value you are looking for will appear in cell “B1.”

- Microsoft Office Support: PERCENTILE.EXC Function
- Microsoft Office Support: PERCENTILE.INC Function
- ExcelFunctions.net: The Excel PERCENTILE.EXC Function

- The formula that PERCENTILE.EXC uses to determine the percentile requires that your percentile value be neither less than 1/(n+1) or greater than n/(n+1) where "n" is the number of values in your data set. To find percentiles outside of this range, use the PERCENTILE.INC function. The syntax on this function is exactly the same as for the PERCENTILE.EXC function.

- If you will need this worksheet to run on versions of Excel prior to 2007, use PERCENTILE instead of PERCENTILE.EXC or PERCENTILE.INC. This function operates the same as PERCENTILE.INC but is backwards compatible with earlier versions of Excel.

Shawn McClain has spent over 15 years as a journalist covering technology, business, culture and the arts. He has published numerous articles in both national and local publications, and online at various websites. He is currently pursuing his master's degree in journalism at Clarion University.

When you compose a document and need either a subscript or a superscript – the little numbers you put beside words to indicate a footnote or by numbers for exponents – Microsoft Word gives you three different approaches. While one is all you need, it’s good to learn all the methods you can use to achieve your goal. So, if you’re looking to create a small 1 symbol for your first footnote, for example, this is what you need to do.

## Small Superscript Using Home Tab

The easiest and most convenient method to create superscripts in Microsoft Word is to use the option in the Home tab, as described by Microsoft. Ensure the Home tab is active in the ribbon at the top of your document. Go to the “Font” group and the “x 2 ” symbol there. To create a superscript number, place your cursor at the point where you want the symbol, press the “x 2 ” button and type what you want before pressing the button again to deactivate it.

You do the same thing to create subscript, although you press the “x_{2}” symbol instead. This method is particularly useful for chemical names: If you want to write CO_{2} or H_{2}O in Word, for example, you can use this approach.

## Using Keyboard Shortcuts

Although the above method is usually the simplest approach, there are alternatives that work just as well. As Office Mastery explains, you can press “Ctrl,” “Shift” and “+” together to toggle superscript on and off. Similarly, if you want to create a subscript, press “Ctrl” and “+” _{}together to toggle the subscript feature on and off. The buttons are usually visible when you’re typing in a Word document, but the shortcuts are straightforward and worth remembering if you need to use subscript and superscript often.

## Using the Symbol Dialog

If you want to create a small 1 type symbol (or any number), you can also use the “Symbol” dialogue, as Erin Wright Writing details. Go to the “Insert” tab in the ribbon and look all the way to the right for the “Symbols” group. Click on the drop-down arrow where it says “Symbol” and choose “More Symbols” at the bottom of the menu to bring up the Symbol dialog box. You can use this to insert a subscript or superscript at the current cursor position.

Click the drop-down button at the top where it says “Subset” and look for “Superscripts and Subscripts” in the list of options. When you choose the option, you are taken to a section that contains the numbers, some basic math operations and a few letters (such as x, n, a and e) as superscripts and subscripts. This option isn’t as flexible as the others, but if you prefer to use the dialog and only want numbers, it works well.

## Alternative for Footnotes

If you want a small number to serve as a label for a footnote, it’s easier to use an alternative approach, as explained by Microsoft. In the “References” tab of the ribbon, look for the “Footnotes” group and the option that says “Insert Footnote.” If you click this button, it creates a footnote at the current cursor position and takes you to the bottom of the page, where you can write the corresponding note.

Excel can perform an array of basic math functions, and the articles listed below will show you how to create the necessary formulas to add, subtract, multiply, or divide numbers. Also, learn how to work with exponents and basic mathematical functions.

## How to Subtract in Excel

**Topics covered:**

- How to subtract numbers using a formula.
- A step-by-step example of creating a subtraction formula in Excel using point and click.
- Why using cell references will make it easy to update your calculations if your data should ever change.

## How to Divide in Excel

**Topics covered:**

- How to divide two numbers using a formula.
- A step-by-step example of creating a division formula in Excel using point and click.
- Why using cell references will make it easy to update your calculations if your data should ever change.

## How to Multiply in Excel

**Topics covered:**

- How to multiply two numbers using a formula.
- A step-by-step example of creating a multiplication formula in Excel using point and click.
- Why using cell references will make it easy to update your calculations if your data should ever change.

## How to Add in Excel

**Topics covered:**

- How to add two numbers using a formula.
- A step-by-step example of creating an addition formula in Excel using point and click.

## How to Change the Order of Operations in Excel

**Topics covered:**

- The order of operations these spreadsheet programs follow when calculating a formula.
- How to change the order of operations in formulas.

## Exponents in Excel

Although less used than the mathematical operators listed above, Excel uses the caret character ( **^** ) as the exponent operator in formulas. Exponents are sometimes referred to as repeated multiplication since the exponent indicates how many times the base number should be multiplied by itself.

For example, the exponent 4^2 (four squared) has a base number of 4 and an exponent of 2 and is raised to the power of two.

Either way, the formula is a short form of saying that the base number should be multiplied together twice (4 x 4) to give a result of 16.

Similarly, 5^3 (five cubed) indicates that the number 5 should be multiplied a total of three times (5 x 5 x 5) which calculates to 125.

## Excel Math Functions

In addition to the basic math formulas listed above, Excel has several functions — built-in formulas — that can be used to carry out many mathematical operations.

You know, like addition is the inverse operation of subtraction, vice versa, multiplication is the inverse of division, vice versa , square is the inverse of square root, vice versa.

What’s the inverse operation of exponents (exponents: 3^5)

## 6 Answers 6

Addition and multiplication are commutative, so there is just *one* inverse function.

Exponents are not commutative; $2^8 \not= 8^2$. So we need *two different* inverse functions.

Given $b^e = r$, we have the “$n$th root” operation, $b = \sqrt[e] r$. It turns out that this can actually be written as an exponent itself: $\sqrt[e] r = r^<1/e>$.

Again, given $b^e = r$, we have $e = \log_b r$, the “base-$b$ logarithm of $r$”.

These functions are the **logarithms**, and they are fundamentally important. For $a = b^c$ (where $b > 0$ ) we write: $$c = \log_b a,$$ which we can take to be the definition of $\log_b$ . We read the operation as "logarithm, base $b$ ," or "base $b$ logarithm".

In particular, we have $$\log_a (a^b) = b \qquad\text**natural logarithm**, denoted by $\ln$ or $\log$ , the logarithm of base $e$ . (NB that sometimes $\log$ can also denote base $10$ , or base $2$ , depending on context.)

Logarithmic identities correspond to exponential identities. From example, from the definition we can conclude that $$\log_b (pq) = \log_b p + \log_b q$$ (for $p, q > 0$ ), which corresponds to the identity $b^

= b^p b^q$ .

Perhaps counterintuitively, sometimes it is convenient to define the natural logarithm first and then define the exponential function $x \mapsto e^x$ to be its inverse, which leads to the slightly antiquated name *antilog* for an exponential function $x \mapsto b^x$ .

**Edit** Some of the other answers here pointed out quite rightly that one can also ask about the inverse of functions where the variable is in the base, i.e., functions $x \mapsto x^a$ , and inverses of these functions $^*$ (at least when $a > 0$ ) are just $x \mapsto x^<1/a>$ , which we often write as $x \mapsto \sqrt[a]**power functions** (note that the inverse of a power function is again a power function), and we reserve the name **exponential function** for functions $x \mapsto b^x$ where the variable is in the exponent, i.e., those to which the logarithms are inverses.

$^*$ For some $a$ (in particular, even integers), we need to restrict the map $x \mapsto x^a$ to $[0, \infty)$ in order to take an inverse.

An **exponent** is a simplified way of saying how many times to multiply a number by itself. When dealing with exponents we need to know which number represents the **base number** and which is the **exponent**.

- The
**base number**is the number that is multiplied by itself. It’s usually written in a larger font. - The
**exponent**tells us how many times to multiply the**base number**by itself. It’s usually written in a smaller font (as a superscript).

As shown above, 4 is the base number. The exponent is 3. What this tells you is that you’ll be multiplying 4 by itself three times [4 x 4 x 4]. First multiply 4 x 4 to get 16. Then multiply this number by 4 [16 x 4 = 64]. Therefore, 4 3 equals 64.

You can make two important observations from this example. First, notice how much simpler it is to use an exponent rather than writing out the multiplication in long-form. You could imagine when dealing with much larger exponents how complicated it would be to write it out. Second, as the exponent increases the base number will increase exponentially. There is no limit to how many times a number can be multiplied by itself.

## Where the Exponent is 1 or 0

When you see the exponent is 1 then the answer will be the number itself (another way of thinking about this is that any number multiplied by 1 stays the same).

When you see the exponent is 0 then the answer will be 1 no matter what the value of the base number is.

## Negative Exponents

A negative exponent tells you to divide the number 1 by the base number. An easy way to remember this is that a negative is the opposite of a positive and division is the opposite of multiplication. Let’s take a look at an example:

Written out 8 to the negative 4 th power is: 1/8/8/8/8

- Divide 1 by 8 which equals 0.125
- Next, divide 0.125 by 8 which equals 0.015625
- Divide 0.015625 by 8 which equals 0.001953125
- Finally, divide 0.001953125 by 8, to get 0.0002441406

## 2. How to Eliminate Exponents

Exponents can be a tricky factor in dealing with equations, and when exponents have variables in them it becomes even more complicated. It’s possible to **eliminate some exponents** using the The Power Rule, but this won’t work for exponents over 2. Another way to eliminate exponents is to convert exponents into a more manageable form, with the **logarithm function.**

Graph of common log.

*If you aren’t familiar with logarithms, then you may want to read the logarithms definition before reading on.* Basically, logarithms are simply an exponent in a different form, so that’s why you can use them to eliminate exponents. For example, log_{10}100 = 2 is the same as 10 2 = 100. More generally, that’s: **log _{a}x = y is the same as a y = x**

The log might also appear in the form ln(x), which is a log taken to the base of e, the natural number.

## How to Eliminate Exponents in Calculus: Example

Example Problem: Solve for the value of x if 10 to the 5x power plus 10 is equal to 20.

Step 1: **Set up the equation** from the information given in the question.

10 5x + 10 = 20

Step 2: **Take 10 from both sides** to eliminate the 10 near the variable. This is a basic algebra step, but still an important one.

10 5x + 10 – 10 = 20 – 10

giving:

10 5x = 10

Step 3: **Take the log** of both sides.

log(10 5x ) = log(10)

Step 4: Apply the logarithms rule that states log_b(a c ) = c * log_b(a). 1

Using this, we can move the variable out of the exponent and leave it in a form we can simplify. If you recall that a log without a subscript is considered a base of 10, you can easily simplify log_10(10) = y as 1, due to b y = x being 10 1 = 10.

5x * 1 = 1

Step 5: Divide both sides by 5 to **isolate the variable.** This will give you a final answer of 1/5, or .2.

5x/5 = 1/5 -> x = 1/5 = 0.2

## Notes

**1**: If you need a refresher on log rules, see Mathematical prerequisites— scroll down to **5. Exponents and Logarithms**.

## References

York University Course Archive. Mathematical Prerequisites. Retrieved January 1, 2019 from: https://www.eecs.yorku.ca/course_archive/2011-12/W/3101/prereq.pdf

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How do I write a simple equation in Excel? How do I add a column of numbers? These are the first questions new Excel users ask.

In this tutorial, we’ll learn how to add, subtract, multiply, divide, find percentages, the order of operations, and more. If new to Excel, start with our Beginners Guide to Excel.

## The 5 Rules of Writing Formulas in Excel

- All Excel formulas start with an equal (=) sign. This tells Excel that it is a formula.
- The answer to the formula displays in the cell into which the formula is entered.
- Cells are referenced in a formula by their column-row identifier, ie. A1, B2.
- The symbols for adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, and exponents are: + − * / ^
- You do not have to enter capital letters in your formula; Excel will automatically capitalize them.

## Examples of Mathematical Operations in Excel

- =A1+A6 ⇒ This Excel formula adds the contents of cell A1 and A6
- =A1+A2+A3 ⇒ This Excel formula adds the contents of the three cells specified. (The SUM function is great for adding multiple numbers)
- =A3−A1 ⇒ This Excel formula subtracts the contents of cell A1 from the contents of cell A3
- =B2
*****B3 ⇒ This Excel formula multiplies the numbers in cells B2 and B3. (The PRODUCT function can also be used) - =G5/A5 ⇒ This Excel formula divides G5 by A5. (Note: If you see the error message #DIV/O! in a cell, you are dividing by zero or a null value, which is not allowed)
- =G5^2 ⇒ This formula tells Excel to square the value in cell G5. The number
*after*the caret is the exponent. (The POWER function can also be used for exponents)

## Order of Operations

We solve formulas, moving **left to right**, in the following order: 1) Parentheses, 2) Exponents, 3) Multiply OR divide, 4) Add OR Subtract. To remember, use this phrase: P lease E xcuse M y D ear A unt S ally. For example, the steps in solving the formula 2²+10÷(4+1) are: 2²+10÷5 **⇒** 4+10÷5 **⇒** 4+2=6

To write Excel formulas correctly, this order must be understood! For more examples, see our tutorial on the Mathematical Order of Operations.

## Calculating Percentages in Excel

There are two ways to calculate percentages in Excel, depending on how the worksheet (spreadsheet) is designed.

### Option #1: Display a percent sign in the cell

To calculate a percentage and have the percent sign display in the cell, just **enter the formula in the cell and format the cell as a Percentage**. Example: The formula in cell C2 is **=A2/A3**. If A2=50 and B2=100, then 50÷100=.5 and .5 would normally display. But if we format cell C2 as a Percentage, **50%** will display instead.

As we learned in our beginner’s tutorial, Excel Made Easy, to format a cell or group of cells, right-click in the cell and click “Format Cells. ” Click “Percentage” on the Number tab, indicate the number of decimal points, and click “OK.”

A format icon can also be found on the ribbon in newer versions of Excel.

### Option #2: Column heading of percent, no percent sign in the cell

Perhaps you want a column labeled “percent” and you don’t want the percent sign to display. This is easy. Just multiply the formulas by **100** to display a number that equals the percentage number.

See the sample worksheet below: Cell C2 contains a formula to calculate the percentage of A2 (50) divided by A3 (100). The formula is **=A2/A3**. As you can see, we have have formatted C2 to display a percentage and it does.

We entered the same formula in D2, but formatted the cell to display a number with 2 decimal points, so Excel displays .5 – which is the decimal equivalent of 50%.

AND in cell E2, we also formatted the cell to display a number, but we **multiplied the formula by 100**, as displayed in the formula bar, to display the percentage instead of the decimal. Then we labeled our column “Percent” and all is well! (The new formula is **=A2/A3*100**).

## Copying and Pasting Formulas

To copy the contents of a cell, click in the cell, right-click, and click Copy. (Or use the keyboard shortcut of Ctrl+C.) Then place the cursor in the receiving cell, right-click, and click Paste. (Or use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+V.)

To remove the animated border on the original cell, press Enter, or press the Esc key, or click in another cell and begin typing.

When pasting the contents of a cell into multiple cells, the cell contents need only be copied once. Use the arrows on the keyboard to move to the other cells and paste.

When copying and pasting formulas, Excel assumes that you want the cell addresses (e.g. B8) changed to align with whatever row or column you are on. That is because most of the time we copy and paste equations, that is what we want it to do. For example, perhaps we are finding the total of many worksheet columns. If you don’t want Excel to change the cell addresses, you need to use **absolute cell references**. We cover this in All About Cell References.

## Locking Cells for Protection

As some formulas can get extremely complicated, it is a good idea to lock those cells that contain the formulas and protect the worksheet. A cell, or a group of cells, can be locked via the Protection tab on the Format window.

More information and instructions for protecting a worksheet or workbook can be found in our tutorial, Locking Cells & Protecting Worksheets.

## Final Thoughts

Remember that when the contents of the data cells change, Excel automatically recalculates the answer. That is what makes this software program so powerful.

When performing calculations, the resulting number may, at times, be quite large – as when dividing numbers. If the number is too large to fully display in the cell, you may see ##### in the cell. When this happens, either make the cell wider, change the cells display font, or format the cell to display fewer decimal points.

We hope this tutorial on how to write formulas and perform math in Excel has been helpful. Cheers!

Using the properties of exponents, we can either choose to subtract the exponents of the corresponding bases or rewrite the expression using negative exponents as such:

Here, we combine the terms with corresponding bases by adding the exponents together to get

Placing the x term (since it has a negative exponent) in the denominator will result in the correct answer. It can be shown that simply subtracting the exponents of corresponding bases will result in the same answer.

### Example Question #3 : Simplify Expressions With Rational Exponents

Simplify the expression .

None of the other answers.

We proceed as follows

Write as a fraction

The denominator of the fraction is a , so it becomes a square root.

Take the square root.

Raise to the power.

### Example Question #2 : Simplify Expressions With Rational Exponents

What is the value of ?

Recall that when considering rational exponents, the denominator of the fraction tells us the “root” of the expression.

Thus in this case we are taking the fifth root of .

The fifth root of is , because .

Thus, we have reduced our expression to .

### Example Question #5 : Simplify Expressions With Rational Exponents

Simplify the expression:

Simplify the constants:

Subtract the “x” exponents:

This is how the x moves to the denominator.

Finally subtract the “y” exponents:

### Example Question #6 : Simplify Expressions With Rational Exponents

To remove the fractional exponents, raise both sides to the second power and simplify:

### Example Question #7 : Simplify Expressions With Rational Exponents

To remove the rational exponent, cube both sides of the equation:

Now simplify both sides of the equation:

### Example Question #8 : Simplify Expressions With Rational Exponents

Simplify and rewrite with positive exponents:

When dividing two exponents with the same base we subtract the exponents:

Negative exponents are dealt with based on the rule

### Example Question #9 : Simplify Expressions With Rational Exponents

Simplify the function:

When an exponent is raised to the power of another exponent, just multiply the exponents together.

### Example Question #10 : Simplify Expressions With Rational Exponents

None of the other answers.

Subtract the “x” exponents and the “y” exponents vertically. Then add the exponents horizontally if they have the same base (subtract the “x” and subtract the “y” ones). Finally move the negative exponent to the denominator.

### All Precalculus Resources

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How to add an equation in your document, see Working with Microsoft Equation.

To insert, for example, the **normal**, or **Gaussian distribution**, do the following:

## In the **Professional** format:

**1.** In your own equation, enter * f(x)=*.

**2.** Under **Equation Tools**, on the **Design** tab, in the **Structures** group, click the **Fraction** button:

In the **Fraction** list choose **Stacked Fraction**:

**3.** Enter * 1* at the top of your fraction.

**4.** In the bottom of your fraction, do the following:

**4.1.** Under **Equation Tools**, on the **Design** tab, in the **Structures** group, click the **Radical** button. In the **Radicals** list choose **Square root**:

**4.3.** Under **Equation Tools**, on the **Design** tab, in the **Symbols** group, click the **More** button:

In the list of symbols choose:

**4.4.** Under **Equation Tools**, on the **Design** tab, in the **Structures** group, click the **Script** button. In the **Scripts and Superscripts** list choose **Superscript**:

**4.5.** In the base box of the script, choose .

**4.6.** In the upper right box of the script, enter * 2*.

**5.** In the left of your formula choose **Script** again to enter * e* in the base box, in the upper right box enter

*and choose*

**–****Fraction**again, etc.:

## In the **Linear** format:

**1.** In your own equation, enter * f(x)=1/*.

**2.** Under **Equation Tools**, on the **Design** tab, in the **Symbols** group, choose or simply * \sqrt*.

**3.** In the brackets enter * 2* (or

*), (or*

**\pi***) and*

**\sigma***:*

**^2**Then you enter a space key, this linear formula transformed to the professional format:

**4.** Enter * e^(-(x-* (or

*),*

**\mu***, (or*

**)^2/(2***) and then*

**\sigma***:*

**^2))**Then you enter a space key, the second part of your linear formula transformed to the professional format:

See also how to create other types of equations.

If you have any questions or suggestions, please feel free to ask OfficeToolTips team.

### How to insert an equation with integral

### How to insert an equation with matrix

### How to insert an equation with trigonometric functions

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In this article, we will learn methods of calculating the percentage of total in Excel. Calculating percentage is basic task in any field of work. We always want to know how much work is done. In school/collage we always calculated our attendance percentage carefully to be able to appear in the exam. So calculating percentage is basic and you must know how to Calculate Percentage in Excel too.

Basic Percentage formula to calculate percentage is:

Let’s do this in excel. We don’t have any specific excel percentage formula and it is not required as per me and MS apparently .

#### How to Calculate Percentage of Total

Let’s say you distributed your product in five regions of country. You would like to know what percentage of total product is distributed in each region. See below image.

I always prefer my total on the top of table, so that whenever I extend the table I do not need to replace it. And it is always visible too if rows are frozen. So yeah it has its benefits.

Now to calculate percentage of total write this Percentage formula in cell C4 and drag it down:

You will see fraction numbers. Now to convert them into percentage, select the cells and press **CTRL+SHIFT+(%)**. This is a shortcut to convert number into percentage. Same thing can be done form Number section of Home tab.

–>Goto home tab.

–>Click on % formating in Number section.

And it’s done. We calculated the percentage of distribution in each region of Total distribution.

**Note that**

- I have given absolute reference of Total and relative reference of the region. It will allow regions to change when copied in relative cell but total will not change. Learn about relative and absolute references in excel .
- In C2 we have some of the percentage, which 100%. This can be used to validate the report. It should always be 100%.

Here we use number formating to add % symbol. In the background they are actually fraction numbers. 7% mean 0.7.

If you want your percentage in whole number than use this formula instead.

#### Calculate Percentage of Total without Total Cell

In above example we used a total cell. Although you would like to have that total cell but in case you don’t, write this formula to calculate percentage of total.

Here we just replaced total cell with absolute function in that cell.

#### Calculate Dynamic Percentage of Total using Tables

The above examples are static. You will need to edit them if you extend your table. So how do you Calculate Percentage of Total Dynamically? We will use Tables here.

To tablise your data,

- Select your table.
- Go to Home tab.
- Click on “Format as Table”
- Select your favorite design

Now each column is a dynamic named range. The heading are name of ranges. This makes it very easy to read and write the formulas. Write this formula in Cell C4.

So yeah my friend, you can calculate % of of Total in Excel. This easy and quick. Let us know if you have any specific problem regarding calculating percentage in Excel in the comments section below.

Excel spreadsheets display a series of number or pound signs like ##### in a cell when the column isn’t big enough to display the information. It also happens if you have a cell formatted to display something different than what you need the spreadsheet to show. All versions of Excel do this, and most formulas in Excel are the same regardless of the version used.

#### TL;DR (Too Long; Didn’t Read)

The quickest and easiest way to fix the problem is to move the mouse cursor to the header where the individual letters appear for each column. On the right edge of the column, in which the cell sits, hover the cursor until it turns into a plus sign with arrows on each end of the horizontal bar. Click the left button on a right hand-driven mouse and hold it and move the column’s edge to resize the column and cell for the width needed.

## Too Small of a Cell

Excel allows users to manage options to adapt its layout to suit your needs. If one or more spreadsheet cells are too narrow, you can resize them. If you resize a cell that contains numbers, it may display ##### if you make it too narrow. This happens only if it sits to the left of another cell that contains content. This can also occur if you copy a number into a cell too narrow to display the number.

## Numbers Gone Missing

Even though number signs may appear in a cell, Excel still knows the cell’s real value and displays it in the spreadsheet’s formula bar. If many cells in the spreadsheet contain number signs, click them individually and note their values in that bar. Hold the cursor over a cell to display a pop-up tool tip that shows the cell’s real numerical value.

## Widen the Cells

Make the problem go away by clicking the column’s right edge in the header area, holding down the left mouse button and dragging your cursor to the right until the cell’s number appears. You could also select the cells you’d like to resize, click “Home” and then click the ribbon’s “Format” tab. Click the “AutoFit Column Width” menu option and Excel resizes the cells so that their content fits within them and the number signs disappear.

## When the Problem Occurs

If you type regular text into cells, you won’t have this problem because Excel does not replace the text with number signs. You usually won’t see number signs when you first type a large number into a cell that’s too narrow because Excel makes the cell wider to fit the value. Number signs appear when you paste a large number from another cell or make an existing cell’s width smaller.

The pound or number signs may also appear if a cell has a formula that generates a negative number. If the column or cell is formatted to display a date and you input a large number, it will also display the pound symbols. Check cell formatting by selecting a cell and clicking the right mouse button. A pop-up menu appears: click “Format Cell” near the bottom. In the menu that appears, select thee “Number” tab, and then choose the number format desired.