How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

Prior to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, the screen command was included. In version 8, the decision was made to deprecate screen and use tmux instead. tmux is a terminal multiplexer which means that you’re able to have a process running, disconnect from the system, and then reconnect at a later time and from a different computer so that you can continue working in that process. An easy way to demonstrate this is to SSH to a remote system, start tmux , and then from inside of that, start a ping command to a remote system, disconnect from tmux , resume tmux , and you’ll see that the ping is still going. Some of the common use cases for this are:

  • If you have a long-running process, such as an upgrade of an application, and you either don’t want to leave the ssh session running the whole time or you’re concerned that your network connection might drop.
  • Going along with that, if you have multiple sessions running, you can use labels for the different sessions.
  • If you want to have somebody else see what you’re doing, you can start a tmux session and then have that other person SSH into your system and attach to that tmux session.

In order to start a basic session, just run the tmux command. This brings you into a tmux session and you’ll be able to run commands and do things just like you normally would as your user. To disconnect from your session, but still leave it running, hit Ctrl+B and then D. To resume the session, I can run:

If there are multiple sessions, then you can connect by the number of the session:

An example of how I use this is that the very last command of my personal start script which connects to the VPN and does other things is to run:

This connects me by SSH to that remote server and then attaches to my tmux session that I know is there with irssi running. For information about using irssi , please see my article Using Irssi inside a Linux tmux session.

The second example use case above was for labeling the different sessions. Now that we’ve gone over some of the basics of using tmux , let’s see an example of using labels:

You may notice that if you have text that scrolls past the top of your screen that you cannot simply hit the Page Up key to see it.

To be able to use your cursor keys in tmux so that you can go back in the buffer, press Ctrl+B and then the [ key. At this point, you’ll be able to use the Arrow keys, Page Up, or Page Down to move around in the output on the screen.

If you want to split the tmux session into having different panes, you can split your session vertically by Ctrl+B and then %. To split the pane horizontally, you’d use Ctrl+B and then a single double quote . In the screenshot below, I first split the session vertically, and then I split the right pane horizontally.

How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

To move the cursor from one pane to the next, you would use Ctrl+B and then whichever Arrow key to move in that direction.

To kill a session without attaching to it and then type exit , you would use kill-session and then specify the session to kill:

How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

There are more options for tmux , and they are available to see by using Ctrl+B and then ?:

How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

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Further reading can be found in the man page for tmux . This article has given a quick introduction to using the tmux command so that a disconnected remote session does not end up killing a process accidentally. Another program that is similar to tmux is screen and you can read about screen in this article.

How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

If you’ve spent a fair amount of time working on the command line, chances are you’ve tried out a terminal multiplexer. These helpful tools let users easily switch between applications in the terminal, save sessions for later, and manage connections to many machines from one location.

When it comes to this category of terminal tools, two of the most popular options are GNU Screen and tmux. We’ve published intro-level articles about both tools over the past couple of weeks, and in that time we’ve received lots of insightful comments from our community members about why they prefer one over the other and how it fits into their day-to-day.

In the spirit of continuing the discussion, we want to know: Which terminal multiplexer do you prefer? GNU Screen or tmux?

Once you cast your vote, be sure to let us know why it’s your go-to in the comments section below.

Comments

25 Comments

with i3 window manager there is less need to have a terminal multiplexer, my default use is four terminal applications open in one screen

Terminal multiplexers are indispensable when working on servers though.

Agreed about the layout, but tmux go further. I also use i3 and in my point of view tmux have a better ability to save / restore session after reboot. It also allow me to connect my shell with all the cool layout through SSH . Which can not be done with i3. So in my opinion you can use both and take the best of the two worlds 🙂

Even with i3 tmux is indespensable for me. One use case is copy-paste from one term to another.

I use multiple windows in tmux and it is less than convenient to use up too many workspaces to replicate the setup.

I3 is useful, but does not replace tmux.

Screen, but only tmux is supported in the new Windows 10 Bash.

I vote for both! I primarily use tmux, because it has more features by default, but when I’m doing work on a server in a tmux window, I’ll fire up an instance of screen.

I wouldn’t want to live without either of them!

Byobu with tmux as backend (but using Ctrl+A as main key binding).

How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

For everyday use, I just stay in Emacs. C-x 3 for vertical splits, C-x 2 for horizontal splits, and m-x shell to get a prompt. However, I use screen on servers, because it can detach and re-attach, and handles complex commands a lot better than the Emacs terminal emulator.

I prefer tmux wit some session manager as yat.sh. And I run emacsclient inside tmux. So I have the possibility of get the best of both. Emacs shell is not good enough for me.

Long-time user of screen but recently switched to tmux via byobu due to some sort of problem with screen although have forgotten the details. Late afternoon it saves being stuck at the office waiting for some command to finish that took longer than it should have. Indispensable for remote work when might be timed out by firewall.

This tutorial provides step-by-step procedures for controlling multiple terminal windows in the same persistent session.

By default, terminating your SSH connection also terminates any remote terminal sessions started by that connection. If you use a terminal multiplexer, you can preserve those sessions for yourself and others to reuse. You can also manage more complex tasks from a single SSH connection, as a terminal multiplexer can provide browser-style tabs for each task, and even divide up your screen with multiple terminal sessions called “panes”.

In previous versions of Oracle Linux, you might have encountered a similar tool called screen , but in this tutorial you will explore tmux .

Objectives

Upon completion of this Lab you will be able to:

  • Connect and disconnect from a persistent tmux session
  • Display, hide, and switch between multiple terminals in the same tmux session
  • Manage several persistent tmux sessions

What do you need?

  • Any system with Oracle Linux 8

Install the tmux Terminal Multiplexer

Note: When using the free lab environment, see Oracle Linux Lab Basics for connection and other usage instructions.

Install the tmux package on your instance by using the package manager, as follows:

Start and connect to a tmux session

Note: tmux sessions are not preserved between reboots, so they are best suited for persistent remote servers.

The tmux command rearranges your terminal window, with a green band running along the bottom that lists the currently active panes. By default, sessions and panes are ordered numerically, according to dynamically assigned ID numbers that count upwards from zero.

All tmux sessions are hosted in a background service, so that means you can reconnect to them if your connection times out, or if your user account has previously logged off.

  1. Start tmux without any parameters to create a new session and connect to it:
  1. List your currently open tmux sessions:
  1. Detach by pressing Ctrl+b, and then the d key.
  2. Reattach to your persistent tmux session:

You can run tmux ls from inside or outside tmux to verify which sessions are available for you to reopen.

Manage multiple tmux sessions

Note: You cannot create nested tmux sessions by default, so always ensure that you have detached from your current tmux session before attempting to create or connect to any other tmux sessions.

  1. Rename your existing session to oracle :
  1. Detach by pressing Ctrl+b, and then the d key.
  2. Create a new tmux session called oracletemp :
  1. Detach by pressing Ctrl+b, and then the d key.
  2. List your open sessions:
  1. Reconnect to the oracle session:

How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

Manage terminal window panes

Terminal window panes behave much like web browser tabs, where you can create, delete, and switch between them. Unlike a web browser, you must use keyboard shortcuts to perform those actions.

  1. Create a new terminal window by pressing Ctrl+b, and then the c key.
  2. Switch to the next window by pressing Ctrl+b, and then the n key. You should notice an asterisk move between each numbered tab as you switch.
  3. Switch to the previous window by pressing Ctrl+b, and then the p key.
  4. Switch to the second window by pressing Ctrl+b, and then then the 1 key.
  5. Close the second window by pressing Ctrl+b, and then the ampersand (&) key. Confirm the action.
  6. Rename the first window by pressing Ctrl+b, and then the comma (,) key. Set the new name to lab .

How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

Manage split terminal window panes

You can split the current terminal window pane to suit your workflow. For example, you could input commands on one half of the terminal pane, and review the output for those commands on the other half.

Below are the most basic steps for getting started with screen: On the command prompt, type screen . Run the desired program. Use the key sequence Ctrl-a + Ctrl-d to detach from the screen session. Reattach to the screen session by typing screen -r .

How do you set a screen session in Linux?

Using screen to attach and detach console sessions If you have centos, run. yum -y install screen. If you have debian/ubuntu run. apt-get install screen. screen. run the command you want to run, for example. to detach run: ctrl + a + d. screen -ls. Use screen -r to attach a single screen. screen -ls. screen -r 344074.

What is screen mode in Linux?

screen command in Linux provides the ability to launch and use multiple shell sessions from a single ssh session. When a process is started with ‘screen’, the process can be detached from session & then can reattach the session at a later time.

How do I turn off screen in Linux?

To stop screen you can usually just type exit from your shell. This will close that screen window. You have to close all screen windows to terminate the session. You should get a message about screen being terminated once you close all windows.

How do I see which screen is running on Linux?

Basic Screen Usage From the command prompt, just run screen. Run your desired program. Detatch from the screen session using the key sequence Ctrl-a Ctrl-d (note that all screen key bindings start with Ctrl-a). You can then list the available screen sessions by running “screen -list”.

How do I remove a screen in Linux terminal?

– To delete a window: Ctrl-a Ctrl-k. – You can also have more screen sessions. From another terminal window (not inside screen) type screen again.

How do I screen SSH?

To start a screen session, you simply type screen within your ssh session. You then start your long-running process, type Ctrl+A Ctrl+D to detach from the session and screen -r to reattach when the time is right.

How do I attach an attached screen?

If you have more than one session running, you will need to know the PID to attach or reattach to an existing session. To detach a session, use Ctrl-a d. If that’s the only session running, you can reattach with Ctrl-a r If more than one session is detached, you’ll need to run Ctrl-a r XXXXX where XXXXX is the PID.

Is Tmux better than screen?

Tmux is more user-friendly than the Screen and contains a nice status bar with some info in it. Tmux features automatic window renaming while the Screen lacks this feature. The Screen allows session sharing with other users while Tmux does not. That is the great feature that Tmux lacks.

How do I run a screen in the background?

Android – “App Run in Background Option” Open the SETTINGS app. You will find the settings app on the home screen or apps tray. Scroll down and click on DEVICE CARE. Click on BATTERY options. Click on APP POWER MANAGEMENT. Click on PUT UNUSED APPS TO SLEEP in advanced settings. Select the slider to OFF.

How do you close a screen?

Multiple interactive shells of the physical terminal are multiplexed by the screen.What is a Screen? Function Keyboard Shortcut Showing keybindings Ctrl+a ? Ending session and terminating Screen Ctrl+a \ Closing the current session Ctrl+a X Closing all sessions except the current one Ctrl+a Q.

How does screen work Linux?

Simply put, screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical terminal between several processes. When you call the screen command, it creates a single window where you can work as normal. You can open as many screens as you need, switch between them, detach them, list them, and reconnect to them.

How do I use Tmux in Linux?

Below are the most basic steps for getting started with Tmux: On the command prompt, type tmux new -s my_session , Run the desired program. Use the key sequence Ctrl-b + d to detach from the session. Reattach to the Tmux session by typing tmux attach-session -t my_session .

How do I reconnect to my screen session?

To reconnect to the session you use screen -rD . When there is just one session running (like now) then it will reconnect you to that session. Try it and you should see the date and time output by the date command we ran earlier. To end a screen session you are currently connected to, simply press Ctrl-d .

Is tmux a screen?

The Linux tmux command is a terminal multiplexer, like screen . Its advocates are many and vocal, so we decided to compare the two.

How do I list all tmux sessions?

Now you can enter :list-sessions or :ls to see a list of active tmux sessions. By default, list-sessions is binded to the key combination s . You can navigate the session list with j and k and activate one by pressing enter .

Why would you use tmux?

The great thing about tmux is it allows you to have multiple panes open at the same time, each with their own shell running, but using the same single ssh connection. Not only that, you can also have multiple “windows” open at the same time, a bit like tabs with more panes in them.

What is a screen rolling tool?

This screen rolling tool is constructed from steel. It features convex and concave rollers with a wooden handle. This tool is used to install most screening materials and vinyl spline into window screen frame.

How do I keep my screen tight when installing?

Place a staple in the middle of the frame, attaching the screen, then pull the screen to the side and downward on one side, adding staples every inch or so. Repeat on the other side of the center staple. Check the screen to ensure that it is tight everywhere with no wrinkles or folds.

How do you set a Linux screen background?

Detach from the screen (disconnect the screen from the terminal and put it into the background): CTRL + A then D .

You you want to learn more on linux terminals to avoid nohup and improve persistent sessions, the recomended/advanced way to run any linux application in background is to use a terminal multiplexer like screen (old), tmux (new), byobu a nicer front-end for the other two.

You can see an introduction about tmux, xpra and vim in a seminar about Remote Development and Computing, by Albert Gil.

If you don’t know tmux or byobu, you definetly should.
These tools are a huge improvement for terminal tasks, specially when working with remote servers and long tasks.

tmux is a new implementation of the old screen, written from scratch and with much more features.
byobu is a nicer and simpler front-end of tmux and screen.

tmux is highly customizable, but it’s defaults are kind of ugly and not much user-friendly.
byobu provides better defaults and a more user-friendly start, but it’s probably less customizable.

They both provide three main features:

  • Persistency
    • you shouldn’t need to worry anymore about running process in background (&) or with nohup
    • you can have multiple sessions, windows/tabs and panes, you don’t need any feature of the terminal emulator
    • you can attach to a terminal from different places at the same time, so you can share your terminal with your teamates or your support team to fix issues

    Please, take a look to this tutorial:

    Please note that for computing service jobs, using sbatch instead of srun is also recomended.

    Want to improve this question? Update the question so it can be answered with facts and citations by editing this post.

    Closed 5 years ago .

    Browsing through questions I found about tmux (I normally used GNU Screen). My question is what are pros and cons of each of them. Especially I couldn’t find much about tmux.

    10 Answers 10

    • How is tmux different from GNU screen? What else does it offer?
    • a clearly-defined client-server model: windows are independent entities which may be attached simultaneously to multiple sessions and viewed from multiple clients (terminals), as well as moved freely between sessions within the same tmux server;
    • a consistent, well-documented command interface, with the same syntax whether used interactively, as a key binding, or from the shell;
    • easily scriptable from the shell;
    • multiple paste buffers;
    • choice of vi or emacs key layouts;
    • an option to limit the window size;
    • a more usable status line syntax, with the ability to display the first line of output of a specific command;
    • a cleaner, modern, easily extended, BSD-licensed codebase.
    • builtin serial and telnet support; this is bloat and is unlikely to be added to tmux;
    • wider platform support, for example IRIX and HP-UX, and for odd terminals.

    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

    One difference is in how the two act when multiple terminals are attached to a single session.

    With screen, each attached terminal’s view is independent of the others. With tmux, all attached terminals see the same thing.

    Say you have two terminals attached to a single tmux session. If you type ^B 1 into one terminal, the other terminal also switches to window 1.

    When you have two terminals attached to a single screen session, and you type ^A 1 into one, it has no effect on the other terminal.

    This is based on my experience with tmux 1.2; I see 1.3 is out but I didn’t notice anything in the changelog about this behavior changing.

    If you like the screen behavior and want it in tmux:

    If your original tmux session is called 0 (the default), then you can do tmux new-session -t 0 ) to start up a new independent session connected to the same set of windows, which can then have its own view.

    tmux is fairly new compared with GNU screen. Advantages / Disadvantages is a tough question, as both programs solve approximately the same problem. tmux is BSD licensed while screen is GNU GPL. This matters to some people.

    screen is more represented (on Linux) at the moment, that is, you are more likely to find it on a given linux box than tmux. tmux is however more represented on OpenBSD as it is included as part of the base install.

    Both programs allow you to do about the same thing, though the state of things is a bit more complex than that. Switching between the two is not overly complicated, as much of screens functionality has also found its way into tmux, though if you are a power user of either one, you will likely find some frustrations when switching to the other.

    As with any program, it really depends on your needs, and which you are more comfortable with. Give them both a try and see which you play nicely with.

    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

    Some Fedora users spend most or all their time at a command line terminal. The terminal gives you access to your whole system, as well as thousands of powerful utilities. However, it only shows you one command line session at a time by default. Even with a large terminal window, the entire window only shows one session. This wastes space, especially on large monitors and high resolution laptop screens. But what if you could break up that terminal into multiple sessions? This is precisely where tmux is handy — some say indispensable.

    Install and start tmux

    The tmux utility gets its name from being a terminal muxer, or multiplexer. In other words, it can break your single terminal session into multiple sessions. It manages both windows and panes:

    • A window is a single view — that is, an assortment of things shown in your terminal.
    • A pane is one part of that view, often a terminal session.

    To get started, install the tmux utility on your system. You’ll need to have sudo setup for your user account (check out this article for instructions if needed).

    Run the utility to get started:

    The status bar

    At first, it might seem like nothing happens, other than a status bar that appears at the bottom of the terminal:

    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

    The bottom bar shows you:

    • [0] – You’re in the first session that was created by the tmux server. Numbering starts with 0. The server tracks all sessions whether they’re still alive or not.
    • 0:[email protected]:

    The information bar will change as you add more windows and panes to the session.

    Basics of tmux

    Stretch your terminal window to make it much larger. Now let’s experiment with a few simple commands to create additional panes. All commands by default start with Ctrl+b.

    • Hit Ctrl+b, “ to split the current single pane horizontally. Now you have two command line panes in the window, one on top and one on bottom. Notice that the new bottom pane is your active pane.
    • Hit Ctrl+b, % to split the current pane vertically. Now you have three command line panes in the window. The new bottom right pane is your active pane.

    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

    Notice the highlighted border around your current pane. To navigate around panes, do any of the following:

    • Hit Ctrl+b and then an arrow key.
    • Hit Ctrl+b, q. Numbers appear on the panes briefly. During this time, you can hit the number for the pane you want.

    Now, try using the panes to run different commands. For instance, try this:

    • Use ls to show directory contents in the top pane.
    • Start vi in the bottom left pane to edit a text file.
    • Run top in the bottom right pane to monitor processes on your system.

    The display will look something like this:

    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

    So far, this example has only used one window with multiple panes. You can also run multiple windows in your session.

    • To create a new window, hit Ctrl+b, c. Notice that the status bar now shows two windows running. (Keen readers will see this in the screenshot above.)
    • To move to the previous window, hit Ctrl+b, p.
    • If you want to move to the next window, hit Ctrl+b, n.
    • To immediately move to a specific window (0-9), hit Ctrl+b followed by the window number.

    If you’re wondering how to close a pane, simply quit that specific command line shell using exit, logout, or Ctrl+d. Once you close all panes in a window, that window disappears as well.

    Detaching and attaching

    One of the most powerful features of tmux is the ability to detach and reattach to a session. You can leave your windows and panes running when you detach. Moreover, you can even logout of the system entirely. Then later you can login to the same system, reattach to the tmux session, and see all your windows and panes where you left them. The commands you were running stay running while you’re detached.

    To detach from a session, hit Ctrl+b, d. The session disappears and you’ll be back at the standard single shell. To reattach to the session, use this command:

    This function is also a lifesaver when your network connection to a host is shaky. If your connection fails, all the processes in the session will stay running. Once your connection is back up, you can resume your work as if nothing happened.

    And if that weren’t enough, on top of multiple windows and panes per session, you can also run multiple sessions. You can list these and then attach to the correct one by number or name:

    Further reading

    This article only scratches the surface of tmux’s capabilities. You can manipulate your sessions in many other ways:

    Instructions for installing and/or using tmux on your personal machine or on the Linux Cluster.

    tmux is terminal multiplexer. More simply, using tmux, you can have multiple terminal sessions, or panes, within a singular window. Each pane is running its own independent terminal session.

    Before getting into how to use tmux, it is important to note all commands in tmux are trigged by a prefix key followed by a command. The tmux prefix key is C-b .
    The C- notation means press and hold the Ctrl key.

    Together C-b means to press the Ctrl & b keys at the same time.

    Install tmux on a Personal Machine

    Linux

    Use the following Terminal command to install tmux (depending on your Linux OS):

    macOS

    Use the following Terminal command to install tmux:

    Navigating tmux Panes & Windows

    Launch tmux (Start a Session)

    To launch tmux, open your terminal window and execute the following command:

    Panes

    Creating multiple panes in one window allows you to see what you’re working on across multiple terminal sessions at the same time.

    Managing Split Panes

    Here is where you will begin to use your + commands.

    Create a Horizontal Split Pane (Left/Right)

    (Press your prefix – Ctrl + b – then release and press %)

    Horizontal Split Screen in tmux.

    Create a Vertical Split Pane (Top/Bottom)

    Navigating Through the Panes

    To navigate through the Panes, use your prefix + arrow keys.

    Closing Panes

    Use the exit command to close a specific pane.

    To completely close the pane:

    Windows

    tmux also allows you to create multiple windows, or similar to having multiple virtual desktops!

    Create a New Window

    Renaming Your Window

    If it helps you stay organized, you can rename your windows at anytime:

    You will be prompted at the bottom of the screen to rename the window.

    Navigating your Windows

    Go to Previous Window

    Go to Next Window

    Go to Specific Window

    If you’ve created so many windows it becomes difficult to navigate with p and n alone, you can go to a specific window by going to the session number in your window’s name in the status bar:

    Closing Windows

    To close the current window:

    Restart tmux

    To kill all existing tmux sessions and start fresh:

    Session Handling with tmux

    One of the perks of using tmux is its ability to maintain sessions in the background. If you are done with your work for the day, you can keep the session alive in the background for later use.

    Detach Sessions

    Use the detach command to detach your current session so you can shutdown:

    Detach All Windows

    Detach Specific Window(s)

    You can select specific windows to detach with:

    Restart Detached Sessions

    To view a list of the tmux sessions running in the background:

    Use the attach command to get started on your session (where # is the session number):

    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)Pedro Figueras (CC0)

    The tmux tool is one of a number of Linux terminal window splitters that allow you to run commands in adjacent (up/down, right/left or both) panes so that you can easily use the output in one pane to help with work you’re doing in another. You can even disconnect a multi-pane tmux session and reattach to it when you need it again.

    What’s more, processes running within tmux will continue running even when you detach, making tmux an excellent tool to use when you’re not sure your connection to a remote server is solid and don’t want to be dropped in the middle of an important task.

    The “mux” in the name tmux stands for multiplexer. This term generally refers to sharing digital connection or an information stream. So, “tmux” stands for “terminal multiplexer”. The tool is similar to terminator and konsole. However, tmux is also available on some OSes other than Linux including MacOS.

    The primary drawback of tmux is that you have to learn some mildly awkward command sequences to use it. However, if you can adjust to just about everything you need to do starting with Ctrl-b (hold the Ctrl key and press b), you’re off to a good start.

    Starting tmux is easy. Just type “tmux” in a terminal window. If you plan to detach and return to a session later, it’s a good idea to give the session a meaningful name.

    To start a session type:

    To start a named session type:

    Once tmux is started, a bar along the bottom of the tmux session will display the session name (if used), server name, and current (updating) time and date.

    Opening new panes is quite easy with commands likes these below. You just have to remember that % means “to the right” and means “below”:

    Moving from pane to pane then requires the use of arrow keys. If you want to move to a pane to the right, use Ctrl-b followed by pressing the right arrow key and, if you want to move down a pane, use Ctrl-b following by the down arrow key. In other words, use whichever arrow key points in the direction you want to move – right, left, up or down.

    To close a pane, first ensure that you’re positioned in it. Then type “exit” or Ctrl-d. Note that there is no need for Ctrl-b in this step. Once you type “exit” or Ctrl-d in the last remaining pane, tmux will close.

    You can also exit tmux by pressing : to go to the bottom bar of the tmux window. Then type kill-session. Note that the session will be gone and will not be reattachable.

    If you want to detach a session instead of simply closing it, use Ctrl-b d (d for “detach”). You can detach with all of the panes still open.

    To list detached sessions, use the command tmux ls on the command line or within a tmux session. Sessions without given names will be called 0, 1, 2 etc., in the order in which they were created. Only detached sessions will show up in the output of the tmux ls command.

    You can rename a session with a command like this:

    You can reattach to a session using a command like one of these that includes the session name you assigned or was automatically provided:

    $ tmux attach -t acct-mgt

    $ tmux attach -t 0.

    Note that, if you reattach a session and then exit instead of detaching, it will no longer be available for reattaching.

    Recipe for a 3-pane tmux session

    Want a recipe for setting up a tmux window like this that you can reuse any time you want?

    Here goes. First start your session and give it a name. In this example, we’re calling the session “tmux3” because it will have three panes.

    After it opens, type these character sequences:

    Next, list your saved session to make sure you did everything right:

    Reattach to your session:

    Your session will start each time with your cursor in whatever pane it was sitting in when you detached. On that note, don’t forget to detach each time you use it by typing Ctrl-b d.

    You can even create an alias to make reattaching to your session that much easier.. In the commands below, we create the alias and save it to our .bashrc file to ensure it’s available each time we log in:

    Got that? You will have to detach every time you use the tmux session by typing Ctrl-b d. Otherwise, the session will no longer be saved. And don’t forget that the session will always pick up where you left off, displaying the output of any commands that are still running.

    For example, if you left top running when you last used the session, it will still be running after you have detached and adding output to the pane in which it’s active. If you kill that top process outside of tmux (which you can), it will no longer be running when you reattach your session. After all, tmux is not a separate system, just a way of splitting your terminal connection. Detaching doesn’t disrupt the running processes, whick is one of the key benefits of using tmux in the first place.

    There are lots of other options available for use with tmux. We’ve only touched on the basics in this post. Refer to the tmux man page for more information, but be aware that C-b is sometimes used to represent Ctrl-b.

    Sandra Henry-Stocker has been administering Unix systems for more than 30 years. She describes herself as “USL” (Unix as a second language) but remembers enough English to write books and buy groceries. She lives in the mountains in Virginia where, when not working with or writing about Unix, she’s chasing the bears away from her bird feeders.

    Tmux is more user-friendly than the Screen and contains a nice status bar with some info in it. Tmux features automatic window renaming while the Screen lacks this feature. The Screen allows session sharing with other users while Tmux does not. That is the great feature that Tmux lacks.

    How do I use tmux instead of screen?

    To move from one pane to another, press Ctrl+B, and then either the Up, Down, Left, or Right Arrow. If you press Ctrl+B, and then the percentage sign ( %) it splits the current pane vertically. Press Ctrl+B, and then Q to make tmux briefly flash the number of each pane.

    How do I download GNU screen?

    Downloading GNU Screen GNU Screen can be found on http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/screen/ [via http] and ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/screen/ [via FTP]. It can also be found on one of our FTP mirrors; please use a mirror if possible.

    Why should I use tmux?

    Instead of keeping track of many windows yourself, you can use tmux to create, organize, and navigate between them. Even more importantly, tmux lets you detach from and re-attach sessions, so that you can leave your terminal sessions running in the background and resume them later.

    Is Nohup slower?

    nohup mode has no relevance on whether the process is I/O bound. So yes, slow storage will probably slow down the process.

    What is better than tmux?

    There are eight alternatives to tmux for Linux, Mac, BSD and Xfce. The best alternative is Terminator, which is both free and Open Source. Other great apps like tmux are GNU Screen (Free, Open Source), byobu (Free, Open Source), dtach (Free, Open Source) and Wemux (Free, Open Source).

    How does GNU screen work?

    GNU Screen is a terminal multiplexer, a software application that can be used to multiplex several virtual consoles, allowing a user to access multiple separate login sessions inside a single terminal window, or detach and reattach sessions from a terminal.

    How do I use GNU Screen?

    Basic Linux Screen Usage

    1. On the command prompt, type screen .
    2. Run the desired program.
    3. Use the key sequence Ctrl-a + Ctrl-d to detach from the screen session.
    4. Reattach to the screen session by typing screen -r .

    Is tmux still useful?

    Even just for poking around on remote servers tmux is useful. It allows you to open a single connection and manage multiple tasks. Easily context switching, comparing, retaining logs in each pane.

    Is tmux built in?

    It is a program built for those serious devs who work on actual shells on a variety of computers. It’s like a window manager that works inside any terminal. On a remote computer, you can run some long installation process in tmux, go offline, and come back later to see the results, e.g. the live terminal output.

    Why does nohup ignore input?

    nohup checks its standard input, standard output and standard error to see which are connected to a terminal; if it finds any which are connected, it handles them as appropriate (ignoring input, redirecting output to nohup. out , redirecting error to standard output), and tells you what it’s done.

    Why we use nohup command in Linux?

    Usually, every process in Linux systems is sent a SIGHUP (Signal Hang UP) which is responsible for terminating the process after closing/exiting the terminal. Nohup command prevents the process from receiving this signal upon closing or exiting the terminal/shell.

    First, you press Ctrl+B to get tmux ‘s attention. You then quickly press the next key to send a command to tmux . Commands are given by pressing letters, numbers, punctuation marks, or arrow keys. It’s the same in screen , except you press Ctrl+A to get its attention.

    How do I use Tmux in Linux?

    Basic Tmux Usage

    1. On the command prompt, type tmux new -s my_session ,
    2. Run the desired program.
    3. Use the key sequence Ctrl-b + d to detach from the session.
    4. Reattach to the Tmux session by typing tmux attach-session -t my_session .

    What is Tmux in Linux?

    Tmux is a Linux application that allows multitasking in a terminal window. It stands for Terminal Multiplexing, and is based around sessions. Users can start a process, switch to a new one, detach from a running process, and reattach to a running process.

    How do I use Tmux with SSH?

    1. ssh into the remote machine.
    2. start tmux by typing tmux into the shell.
    3. start the process you want inside the started tmux session.
    4. leave/detach the tmux session by typing Ctrl + b and then d.

    How do I connect to a Tmux session?

    1. Ctrl + b s. Show all sessions. $ tmux a.
    2. $ tmux attach-session. Attach to last session. $ tmux a -t mysession.
    3. Ctrl + b ( Move to previous session. Ctrl + b )

    Is Tmux better than screen?

    Tmux is more user-friendly than the Screen and contains a nice status bar with some info in it. Tmux features automatic window renaming while the Screen lacks this feature. The Screen allows session sharing with other users while Tmux does not. That is the great feature that Tmux lacks.

    How do I start the screen in Linux?

    Below are the most basic steps for getting started with screen:

    1. On the command prompt, type screen .
    2. Run the desired program.
    3. Use the key sequence Ctrl-a + Ctrl-d to detach from the screen session.
    4. Reattach to the screen session by typing screen -r .

    How do I kill all Tmux sessions?

    To close a specific session, use tmux list-sessions to identify the session you want to kill, and then use tmux kill-session -t targetSession to kill that specific session. Also you can grossly kill all tmux processes with pkill -f tmux .

    Should I use Tmux?

    Instead of keeping track of many windows yourself, you can use tmux to create, organize, and navigate between them. … Even more importantly, tmux lets you detach from and re-attach sessions, so that you can leave your terminal sessions running in the background and resume them later.

    What is Tmux attach?

    You can exit a session at any point. This is called “detaching”. tmux will keep this session alive until you kill the tmux server (e.g. when you reboot) 2. This is incredibly useful because at any later point in time you can pick that session up exactly from where you left it by simply “attaching” to that session.

    How do I keep a process running?

    How to keep processes running after ending ssh session

    1. ssh into your remote box. type screen Then start the process you want.
    2. Press Ctrl-A then Ctrl-D. This will detach your screen session but leave your processes running. …
    3. If you want to come back later, log on again and type screen -r This will resume your screen session, and you can see the output of your process.

    How do you keep a script running in Linux?

    Just leave the download process running on the remote system and exit from the screen session by pressing “Ctrl-A” followed by “d“. You will see an output something like below. After detaching from the screen session, you can log out from the remote system. The remote job will keep running in the server.

    How do I keep my ssh session alive in Linux?

    There can be various ways to leave ssh sessions running after disconnection as described below:

    1. Using screen Command to Keep SSH Sessions Running. …
    2. Using Tmux (Terminal Multiplexer) to Keep SSH Sessions Running. …
    3. Using nohup command to Keep Running SSH Sessions. …
    4. Using disown Command to Keep SSH Sessions Running.

    How do I find my Tmux version?

    To get the version of the tmux server you can use display-message. -p will direct the output of stdout so you can script with it and can be anything from the FORMATS section in the man page.

    tmux, the terminal multiplexer, is easily one of the most used tools by the Linux community (and not just pentesters!). While not a malicious tool, tmux makes running simultaneous tasks throughout a pentest incredibly easy. In this primer room, we’ll walk through the process of installing and using some of the most common key combinations used in tmux.

    Once tmux is installed, let’s launch a new session. What command do we use to launch a new session without a custom name? tmux

    All tmux commands start with a keyboard button combination. What is the first key in this combination? Control

    How about the second key? Note, these keys must be pressed at the same time and released before pressing the next target key in the combination. B

    Lets go ahead and detach from our newly created tmux session. What key do we need to add to the combo in order to detach? D

    Well shoot, we’ve detached from our session. How do we list all of our sessions? tmux ls

    What did our session name default to when we created one without a set name? 0

    Now that we’ve found the name of our session, how do we attach to it? tmux a -t 0

    Let’s go ahead and make a new window in this session. What key do we add to the combo in order to do this? c

    Whew! Plenty of output to work with now! If you work with a relatively small terminal like me, this output might not all fit on screen at once. To fix that, let’s enter ‘copy mode’. What key do we add to the combo to enter copy mode? [

    Copy mode is very similar to ‘less’ and allows up to scroll up and down using the arrow keys. What if we want to go up to the very top? g

    How about the bottom? G

    What key do we press to exit ‘copy mode’? q

    This window we’re working in is nice and all but I think we need an upgrade. What key do we add to the combo to split the window vertically? %

    How about horizontally? “

    Say one of these newly minted panes becomes unresponsive or we’re just done working in it, what key do we add to the combo to ‘kill’ the pane? x

    Now that’s we’ve finished out work, what can we type to close the session? exit

    Last but now least, how do we spawn a named tmux session named ‘neat’? tmux new -s neat

    Tmux is more user-friendly than the Screen and contains a nice status bar with some info in it. Tmux features automatic window renaming while the Screen lacks this feature. The Screen allows session sharing with other users while Tmux does not. That is the great feature that Tmux lacks.

    Is tmux necessary?

    It’s really useful as a tabbing/splitting terminal emulator locally. Each tmux “session” is it’s own urxvt window for me and usually resides on its own workspace. I also make heavy use of Copy mode in tmux to copy text between windows inside and across sessions, even remotely.

    Is tmux still used?

    Tmux is widely used and has active development. You’ll find a lot of guides out there discussing configuration and usage. It’s also a joy to work with, the status line is useful and most terminal commands work directly in tmux.

    What is tmux and how do you use it?

    Tmux is a terminal multiplexer an alternative to GNU Screen . In other words, it means that you can start a Tmux session and then open multiple windows inside that session. Each window occupies the entire screen and can be split into rectangular panes.

    What is better than tmux?

    There are eight alternatives to tmux for Linux, Mac, BSD and Xfce. The best alternative is Terminator, which is both free and Open Source. Other great apps like tmux are GNU Screen (Free, Open Source), byobu (Free, Open Source), dtach (Free, Open Source) and Wemux (Free, Open Source).

    How do I list all tmux sessions?

    Now you can enter :list-sessions or :ls to see a list of active tmux sessions. By default, list-sessions is binded to the key combination s . You can navigate the session list with j and k and activate one by pressing enter .

    Does tmux use screen?

    Both the tmux and GNU screen commands are terminal multiplexers. They allow you to have multiple windows within a single terminal window, and to jump back and forth between them. A window can be divided into panes, each of which gives you an independent command line.

    Does tmux keep SSH session alive?

    Using Tmux (Terminal Multiplexer) to Keep SSH Sessions Running. It allows, apart from all options offered by screen, splitting panes horizontally or vertically between multiple windows, resizing window panes, session activity monitoring, scripting using command line mode etc.

    How do I detach tmux?

    You can also exit tmux by pressing : to go to the bottom bar of the tmux window. Then type kill-session. Note that the session will be gone and will not be reattachable. If you want to detach a session instead of simply closing it, use Ctrl-b d (d for “detach”).

    How do I know if a tmux session is active?

    Show existing sessions You can—and often will—have multiple tmux sessions on a single system, so you want to be able to see what they are. You can also show sessions using the shortcut ctrl–b–s.

    How do I move up in tmux session?

    2 – With keyboard shortcuts Scrolling with keys is enabled by default in Tmux. Just press ctrl + b then [ to move around with the arrow keys. Just as with the mouse settings you have to add them to your .

    How do I keep tmux session alive?

    ssh into the remote machine. start tmux by typing tmux into the shell. start the process you want inside the started tmux session. leave/detach the tmux session by typing Ctrl + b and then d.

    What is tmux and how to configure it?

    tmux is a terminal multiplexer. You can create multiple tmux sessions totally independent of your terminal emulator. If you already know GNU-screen (another terminal multiplexer), tmux is similar but more powerful and easier to config. To understand the concept, let’s try to create a tmux session.

    What’s the difference between tmux and GNU Screen?

    Both the tmux and GNU screen commands are terminal multiplexers. They allow you to have multiple windows within a single terminal window, and to jump back and forth between them. A window can be divided into panes, each of which gives you an independent command line.

    Is there a way to kill a tmux session?

    There are many tmux commands available, but here are the only ones you need to get started: If you kill all the windows in a tmux session, it will kill the overall session and return you to the normal terminal. If you use d to detach tmux, you’ll be back in the normal terminal with your tmux session still running in the background.

    What happens when I close tmux in terminal?

    The tmux session is closed and you’re returned to the command line from which you launched tmux. You’ll see “ [exited]” in the terminal window. This might seem like it’s stating the obvious, but it’s a confirmation you’ve closed the session and not left it detached and running.

    Improve your remote access to Linux devices over SSH with Mosh and run multiple sessions with Tmux.

    One of Linux’s strengths is its orientation toward networking, which is largely due to its Unix heritage. There’s a reason why Linux is an operating system of choice for servers.

    The main way to remotely access Linux servers is through SSH, or Secure Shell. While it’s useful and secure, it was designed in an era before Wi-Fi and cellular connections became commonplace.

    If you move your computer to a different Wi-Fi network or put it to sleep, you might find yourself disconnected with an apparently frozen terminal screen.

    Why Mosh + Tmux?

    Fortunately, there are a couple of tools that will make remote computing with SSH easier to use and more reliable. You can use them on everything from a physical terminal in a data center to a home server, on a cloud server, even another desktop machine running Unix or a BSD operating system.

    Mosh is a tool on top of SSH that makes it aware of changing network connections, and tmux is a “terminal multiplexer” that lets you preserve a shell session across different logins and even share them.

    Getting Started With Mosh

    Mosh is an open-source project that makes SSH work over roaming and intermittent connections, as many wireless connections are both.

    You can switch your computer from a wired to a wired network, to a different wireless network, and your connection will stay up. You can also put your laptop to sleep while connected and after the network reconnects, you’ll be able to type in the terminal window.

    If you lose your network connection, Mosh will tell you that it hasn’t heard from the remote server. If the server is slow echoing back characters, it’ll underline what you type until the latest screen comes back.

    There’s more technical detail in a paper written by the authors, but installing it as a user is pretty simple. Mosh is widely available in most Linux distributions’ package managers. It’s also available as a Google Chrome app.

    Install Mosh on Linux

    For example, to install in Ubuntu:

    Of course, the server will also have to have the Mosh server installed. The advantage of Mosh is that the server component can run in user mode, so you don’t have to be root to install it.

    Using Mosh

    When you want to connect to your remote machine, just type:

    Obviously, you’ll want to replace the “username” and “server” with your username and the name of the machine you’re trying to connect to.

    See the documentation if you have more specialized needs, such as connecting to a different port.

    If everything works correctly, you’ll have a remote terminal session, just with SSH. You’ll be able to issue commands the same way, but your connection will be more reliable.

    Getting Started With Tmux

    You have a remote terminal connection that can survive wireless network changes, but what about when you’re finally connected?

    You might run a job that takes a long time, such as installing software or even a long compilation job. What happens if you get disconnected. The job will likely quit when the terminal does.

    Plus, you can only do one thing at a time in the terminal, even with job control. If you wanted to run a full-screen editor, it will take up the entire terminal.

    Tmux is one answer to these problems. It’s a “terminal multiplexer” that lets you run multiple terminals in one window. It’s like a tabbed terminal on a Linux desktop, but much more flexible.

    You can detach a session and log out, to come back to it later and pick up right where you left off. You can open multiple terminal windows. You can edit a program in one window in an editor and test it at the command line in another.

    Installing tmux is also very easy. Like Mosh, it’s included in many Linux distro package managers. In Ubuntu, you’d just type:

    Obviously, you’ll have to install this on your remote machine to use it there, but it’s quite useful, locally as well.

    When it’s installed, you launch tmux by using the command:

    You’ll then launch into a terminal window, similar to one you’ve launched locally. You’ll see a status bar showing which window you’re in.

    Tmux divides the screen into “windows” with multiple “panes”, showing their own terminals. You can rearrange and resize these panes, with limitless windows with their own panes.

    Because tmux is a terminal-based program, it’s controlled entirely from the keyboard. The default prefix command to execute commands in tmux is Ctrl+B. This can be changed in the configuration file.

    The user configuration file is the .tmux.conf in your home directory. The documentation has more details, but the number of customizations you can perform is extensive.

    Tmux might have a learning curve, but with other “difficult” programs in the Linux/Unix world, many users find that the time spent put into learning these programs is well spent in what it lets them do.

    One of the most powerful options is the ability to detach your session and reattach to it later. To do this, type Ctrl+D. To reattach, type “tmux attach” at the shell, and you’ll find yourself back at your session.

    This means that your session will stay up as long as the machine does. This method is also popular for running chat apps like IRC, as people can stay in chat rooms for a long time. It’s also possible to share sessions with other people, such as for pair programming.

    Combining Mosh and Tmux

    The real power of a remote session comes from the combinations of Mosh and tmux.

    With Mosh, you can log in to your remote machine from anywhere and not worry about the reliability of your connection. If you want to run something that might take a long time, you can detach your session and come back to it later.

    The combination of Mosh and tmux will allow you maximum reliability and flexibility in your remote logins. There’s a lot more to explore in tmux alone that will unleash the power of your terminal sessions.

    What is Tmux Linux? Tmux is a Linux application that allows multitasking in a terminal window. It stands for Terminal Multiplexing, and is based around sessions. Users can start a process, switch to a new one, detach from a running process, and reattach to a running process.

    How do I use tmux in Linux? First, you press Ctrl+B to get tmux ‘s attention. You then quickly press the next key to send a command to tmux . Commands are given by pressing letters, numbers, punctuation marks, or arrow keys. It’s the same in screen , except you press Ctrl+A to get its attention.

    What is tmux in Ubuntu? tmux is a terminal multiplexer. It allows you to access a tmux terminal using multiple virtual terminals. tmux takes advantage of a client-server model, which allows you to attach terminals to a tmux session. tmux also includes a window-pane mentality, which means you can run more than one terminal on a single screen.

    What is tmux and how does it work? The official verbiage describes tmux as a screen multiplexer, similar to GNU Screen. Essentially that means that tmux lets you tile window panes in a command-line environment. This in turn allows you to run, or keep an eye on, multiple programs within one terminal.

    What is Tmux Linux? – Related Questions

    What is tmux in terminal?

    What is tmux? By definition, tmux is what is known as a “terminal multiplexer”. What is a terminal multiplexer? According to tmux’s GitHub repository Wiki, “It lets you switch easily between several programs in one terminal, detach them (they keep running in the background) and reattach them to a different terminal.

    Is screen better than tmux?

    Tmux is more user-friendly than the Screen and contains a nice status bar with some info in it. Tmux features automatic window renaming while the Screen lacks this feature. The Screen allows session sharing with other users while Tmux does not. That is the great feature that Tmux lacks.

    What is screen Linux?

    What is Screen? Screen is a terminal program in Linux which allows us to use a virtual (VT100 terminal) as full-screen window manager which multiplexes an open physical terminal between multiple processes, which are typically, interactive shells.

    Should you use tmux?

    Instead of keeping track of many windows yourself, you can use tmux to create, organize, and navigate between them. Even more importantly, tmux lets you detach from and re-attach sessions, so that you can leave your terminal sessions running in the background and resume them later.

    What is the point of tmux?

    tmux is an open-source terminal multiplexer for Unix-like operating systems. It allows multiple terminal sessions to be accessed simultaneously in a single window. It is useful for running more than one command-line program at the same time.

    How do I connect to a tmux session?

    You need to reattach the corresponding tmux session. So do tmux ls . Pick whatever session you want to re-attach. Then do tmux attach -d -t to re-attach it to a new tmux instance and release it from the old one.

    How do I switch between tmux panes?

    Ctrl+b arrow key — switch pane.

    What is better than tmux?

    There are eight alternatives to tmux for Linux, Mac, BSD and Xfce. The best alternative is Terminator, which is both free and Open Source. Other great apps like tmux are GNU Screen (Free, Open Source), byobu (Free, Open Source), dtach (Free, Open Source) and Wemux (Free, Open Source).

    What is byobu Ubuntu?

    Byobu is a GPLv3 open source text-based window manager and terminal multiplexer. It was originally designed to provide elegant enhancements to the otherwise functional, plain, practical GNU Screen, for the Ubuntu server distribution.

    How does Linux screen work?

    Simply put, screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical terminal between several processes. When you call the screen command, it creates a single window where you can work as normal. You can open as many screens as you need, switch between them, detach them, list them, and reconnect to them.

    How do I know if a tmux session is active?

    Show existing sessions

    You can—and often will—have multiple tmux sessions on a single system, so you want to be able to see what they are. You can also show sessions using the shortcut ctrl–b–s.

    How do I move up in tmux session?

    2 – With keyboard shortcuts

    Scrolling with keys is enabled by default in Tmux. Just press ctrl + b then [ to move around with the arrow keys. Just as with the mouse settings you have to add them to your .

    How do I screen SSH?

    To start a screen session, you simply type screen within your ssh session. You then start your long-running process, type Ctrl+A Ctrl+D to detach from the session and screen -r to reattach when the time is right. Once you have multiple sessions running, reattaching to one then requires that you pick it from the list.

    How do you stop a screen in Linux?

    To quit screen (kill all windows in the current session), press Ctrl-a Ctrl- .

    How do I change my screen name in Linux?

    Ctrl + A , : followed by sessionname name (1). Within a single screen session, you can also name each window. Do this by typing Ctrl + A , A then the name you want.

    Should I use zsh or bash?

    For the most part bash and zsh are almost identical which is a relief. Navigation is the same between the two. The commands you learned for bash will also work in zsh although they may function differently on output. Zsh seems to be much more customizable than bash.

    Does tmux keep SSH session alive?

    Using Tmux (Terminal Multiplexer) to Keep SSH Sessions Running. It allows, apart from all options offered by screen, splitting panes horizontally or vertically between multiple windows, resizing window panes, session activity monitoring, scripting using command line mode etc.

    How do I find my tmux version?

    To get the version of the tmux server you can use display-message.

    How do you split tmux vertically?

    Ctrl+b ” — split pane horizontally. Ctrl+b % — split pane vertically. Ctrl+b arrow key — switch pane. Hold Ctrl+b , don’t release it and hold one of the arrow keys — resize pane.

    Which Shell does tmux use?

    On a new setup, tmux is using bash instead of my default (zsh).

    How do I detach all tmux sessions?

    In a tmux session, tmux detach-client -a will detach all other clients except the current one. So you can simply call detach_others from your terminal, and all other sessions will be detached.

    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

    Anthony Heddings
    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)Anthony Heddings
    Writer

    Anthony Heddings is the resident cloud engineer for LifeSavvy Media, a technical writer, programmer, and an expert at Amazon’s AWS platform. He’s written hundreds of articles for How-To Geek and CloudSavvy IT that have been read millions of times. Read more.

    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

    tmux, short for terminal multiplexer, is a command line utility that makes working from the terminal much easier. It allows you to split your terminal window into many panes, which will persist across multiple SSH sessions.

    Installing and Using tmux

    tmux can be installed from the package manager for most distros. For Debian-based systems like Ubuntu, that would be:

    It’s also available on brew, a third-party package manager for macOS, with brew install tmux .

    Once it’s installed, you can get started by entering the tmux command. However, this starts a session with a random name, so you can create a new named session with tmux new :

    This will take over your terminal window, and you’ll see a new command bar at the bottom. You’re now running inside tmux , in a newly created session. This session acts as if you opened a new terminal window or a new SSH session and left it running on your desktop, except it’s running without a window and behind the scenes. tmux allows you to connect to it. In essence, tmux is a desktop environment for the terminal world.

    If you close the actual terminal window, this tmux session will persist until you manually terminate it (or restart your system). It works the same way when connecting to a remote server; everything you run will persist until you terminate the session.

    To terminate the session, you can run the exit command, or press Control+A, Control+D. You’ll see “exited” in your main terminal as tmux exits.

    More often though, you’ll simply want to disconnect from the session and leave it running on the server. To do this, you’ll want to press the tmux prefix shortcut, which is Control+B by default, and then press the “D” key. You’ll see “Detached From Session” in your main terminal when tmux exits.

    To reconnect to a session, use:

    The “ a ” command is short for attach-session , which saves some keystrokes. Additionally, you can use the # shortcut to connect to the last created session:

    To view all sessions, you can run:

    Which will display the session name and current number of windows. Make sure you’re not already connected to a tmux session when trying to connect to another session, as recursion is blocked by default (and is a pain anyway).

    Multitasking with Panes

    Panes make heavy use of the tmux prefix shortcut, so it’s best to remember it:

    Every command will be prefixed with this so that tmux intercepts it.

    To make a new pane, use one of two shortcuts:

    • Control+B % to split vertically
    • Control+B ” to split horizontally

    These will split the current pane however you choose.

    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

    To switch between panes, you’ll have enter Control+B followed by an arrow key. You can also install mouse support with Oh My Tmux!, which will let you click between them.

    If you aren’t satisfied with how big the panes are, you can resize them with these two commands:

    Control+B followed by a colon opens up the tmux command prompt, which accepts more detailed commands. The command we use here is resize-pane , which takes a direction (U for up, L for left, etc.) and the number of lines to expand. In this case, this command expands the currently selected pane four lines to the right.

    Tmux Windows

    If you don’t like the look of having your terminal split (or just want to multitask will full screen apps) you can use tmux windows. You can use the following commands to work with windows:

    • Control+B c to create a new window
    • Control+B p to switch to the previous window
    • Control+B n to switch to the next window
    • Control+B 0-9 to switch to a window by index number.

    Additionally, pressing Control+B w will bring up an interactive exposé, allowing you to view what windows you have open, what commands they are running, and how many panes they have:

    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

    You can terminate a window at any time by using the exit command, which will stop all running processes. Note that this will also stop tmux altogether if you run it with only one window open.

    If the window becomes unresponsive, you can force it closed with Control+B & , which will always kill the running processes in that window.

    Expanding tmux

    tmux is wildly popular, and there’s plenty of plugins, themes, and community support behind it. Here’s a few useful ones:

      – Powerline theme, mouse support, and a lot of useful features – Saves your layout (and more) across reboots – Adds a few more keybinds for managing panes – Better mouse support for some CLI apps – Window manager for tmux that saves to configuration files
    • And a ton of themes.

    There is a lot more to tmux than is covered here, but the core functionality is relatively simple (which makes it a great utility).

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    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

    Anthony Heddings
    Anthony Heddings is the resident cloud engineer for LifeSavvy Media, a technical writer, programmer, and an expert at Amazon’s AWS platform. He’s written hundreds of articles for How-To Geek and CloudSavvy IT that have been read millions of times. Read Full Bio »

    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

    tmux lets you keep things running persistently on servers, so you can disconnect and connect as needed without interrupting tasks that are in progress.

    Use-cases: compiling code, running security scans, etc.

    Installing Tmux

    It’s best to install tmux using your existing OS package management options.

    $ brew install tmux

    $ apt install tmux

    Creating a session

    If you invoke tmux by itself, you’ll get dropped into a new session. And if you exit this session, you drop right back into your normal shell.

    The ctrl – b shortcut is good to memorize.

    Creating named sessions lets you reattach more easily.

    $ tmux new -s session-name

    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

    A raw tmux session

    Detaching from a session

    You want a pause between the shortcut and the following command.

    To detach from a session you invoke the shortcut ( ctrl-b )—followed by d , for detatch, or by typing detach explicitly.

    Consider remapping CAPSLOCK to CONTROL in your OS to make this easier.

    Show existing sessions

    You can—and often will—have multiple tmux sessions on a single system, so you want to be able to see what they are.

    You can also show sessions using the shortcut ctrl – b – s .

    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

    A view of running sessions

    Attaching to an existing session

    Now that we can see those sessions, you can either connect to one by session name, or by number.

    50,000 people every Monday morning.

    The session names start at 0 and increment upwards.

    $ tmux attach -t 0

    tmux a will connect you to the first available session.

    $ tmux attach -t session-name

    Killing a session

    There are times when you’ll want to destroy a session outright, and that can be done similar to attaching to one.

    $ tmux kill-session -t session-name

    You can also kill tmux altogether with killall tmux .

    Windows and Panes

    How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

    I don’t use this functionality myself.

    Another feature of tmux is the ability to break your session into more discreet components, called windows and panes. These are good for organizing multiple activities in a logical way.

    Basically, tmux sessions have windows, and windows have panes. Here’s how I conceptualize the structure.

    • Sessions are for an overall theme, such as work, or experimentation, or sysadmin.
    • Windows are for projects within that theme. So perhaps within your experimentation session you have a window titled noderestapi, and one titled lua sample.
    • Panes are for views within your current project. So within your sysadmin session, which has a logs window, you may have a few panes for access logs, error logs, and system logs.

    A Quick Command Reference

    These all play off of the ctrl-b shortcut.

    Basics

    • ? get help

    Session management

    • s list sessions
    • $ rename the current session
    • d detach from the current session

    Windows

    • c create a new window
    • , rename the current window
    • w list windows
    • % split horizontally
    • split vertically
    • n change to the next window
    • p change to the previous window
    • 0 to 9 select windows 0 through 9

    Panes

    • % create a horizontal pane
    • create a vertical pane
    • h move to the left pane. *
    • j move to the pane below *
    • l move to the right pane *
    • k move to the pane above *
    • q show pane numbers
    • o toggle between panes
    • > swap with next pane
    • < swap with previous pane
    • ! break the pane out of the window
    • x kill the current pane

    Parting thoughts

    Here are a few tips I’ve picked up over the years using tmux .

    1. Consider using as few sessions and windows as possible. Humans aren’t as good at multitasking as we think we are, and while it feels powerful to have 47 panes open it’s usually not as functional as you’d imagine.
    2. When you do use windows and panes, take the time to name them. They are indeed useful, but switching between sessions and windows is supremely annoying when they’re all labeled 0, 1, and 2.
    3. Start with a basic config and get used to it before you get silly with it. I’ve seen multiple people spend hours configuring vim or tmux only to confuse themselves and abandon the project altogether. Start simple.

    Notes

    1. tmux is a lot like screen, only better. The short answer for how it’s better is that tmux is 1) Tmux is built to be truly client/server; screen emulates this behavior, 2) Tmux supports both emacs and vim shortcuts, 3) Tmux supports auto-renaming windows, 4) Tmux is highly scriptable, 5) Window splitting is more advanced in tmux
    2. The man page.

    Written By Daniel Miessler

    The premier networking community for smart and curious people interested in security, technology, and society.

    Every Monday morning I condense 20+ hours of content and analysis into a concise summary—and send it to around 50,000 people…

    iTerm2 is integrated with tmux, allowing you to enjoy a native user interface with all the benefits of tmux’s persistence.

    Introduction

    Normally, when you use tmux, multiple virtual windows are displayed in a single “physical” window. You can manipulate the environment by issuing commands to tmux. This poses a few problems:

    • Some keystroke must be dedicated to tmux to enter its command mode (^B, by default, which means moving the cursor to the left in emacs or an interactive shell becomes more difficult).
    • You have to ssh to the remote host more than once to get more than one view of your tmux session’s window.
    • You have to learn tmux commands.
    • To adjust split panes, you have to enable mouse reporting, even if you don’t want it otherwise.
    • Some built-in features of your terminal emulator don’t work as well as they would if you weren’t using tmux: for instance, you can’t access tmux’s scrollback history as easily or quickly as you can in a normal terminal window. Also, tmux’s find feature isn’t as good as iTerm2’s.

    For many users, a terminal multiplexer would be a great way to work, but they don’t want to accept the drawbacks.

    iTerm2’s tmux integration solves these problems.

    When you run “tmux -CC”, a new tmux session is created. An iTerm2 window opens and it acts like a normal iTerm2 window. The difference is that when iTerm2 quits or the ssh session is lost, tmux keeps running. You can return to the host you were ssh’ed into and run “tmux -CC attach” and the iTerm2 windows will reopen in the same state they were in before. A few use cases come to mind:

    For users who do most of their work in ssh:

    • Restore the environment you had at work when you get home.
    • No more anxiety about letting System Update reboot!
    • Collaborate with another user by having two people attach to the same tmux session.

    Usage

    You should be able to use tmux as always. Just add the -CC argument to its invocation. In practice, this means running one of these commands:

    • tmux -CC
    • tmux -CC attach

    When you run tmux -CC, what you’ll see on that terminal is a menu:

    • If you press esc, the tmux windows will close and the tmux client will exit.
    • If you press esc and nothing happens, then the tmux client may have crashed or something else has gone wrong. Press “X” to force iTerm2 to exit tmux mode. You may need to run “stty sane” to restore your terminal’s state if the tmux client did crash.
    • If you want to report a bug, press L and reproduce the issue. The tmux protocol commands will be written to the screen.
    • If you want to run a tmux command that isn’t available through the menus, you can press C. A dialog box opens and you can enter a command. For example, “new-window”.

    In general, you don’t need to run commands to perform the most common actions. The following iTerm2 actions affect tmux:

    • Close a session, tab, or window: Kills the tmux session or window.
    • Split a pane: Splits the tmux window using the split-window command.
    • Resize a split pane: Resizes tmux split panes using the resize-pane command.
    • Resize a window: Tells tmux that the client size has changed, causing all windows to resize. Windows are never larger than the smallest attached client. A gray area on the right or bottom of a window indicates that a physical window is larger than the maximum allowed tmux window size. One consequence of this rule is that all tmux windows/tabs will contain the same number of rows and columns.
    • Create a window or tab using the Shell->tmux menu: Creates a new tmux window.
    • Detach using Shell->tmux->Detach: Detaches from the tmux session. All tmux windows are closed. You can get them back with tmux -CC attach.

    Limitations

    There are a few limitations of tmux integration which are related to the design of tmux.

    • A tab with a tmux window may not contain non-tmux split panes.
    • A tab with split panes may have “empty” areas. This is because tmux wants every tmux window to be the same size, but our split pane dividers are not exactly one cell by one cell in size.

    Configuration

    Check Preferences > General > tmux for configuration settings. You can also adjust whether to open the tmux Dashboard when connecting to a session with a large number of windows. You can open the tmux Dashboard by selecting the menu item Shell > tmux > Dashboard.

    See also the tmux section of General Preferences.

    Best Practices

    For practical tips on how to configure iTerm2 for use with tmux integration in the real world, please see tmux Integration Best Practices.

    iTerm2 by George Nachman. Website by Matthew Freeman, George Nachman, and James A. Rosen.

    The Windows Subsystem for Linux lets developers run a GNU/Linux environment — including most command-line tools, utilities, and applications — directly on Windows, unmodified, without the overhead of a traditional virtual machine or dualboot setup.

    • Choose your favorite GNU/Linux distributions from the Microsoft Store.
    • Run common command-line tools such as grep , sed , awk , or other ELF-64 binaries.
    • Run Bash shell scripts and GNU/Linux command-line applications including:
      • Tools: vim, emacs, tmux
      • Languages: NodeJS, Javascript, Python, Ruby, C/C++, C# & F#, Rust, Go, etc.
      • Services: SSHD, MySQL, Apache, lighttpd, MongoDB, PostgreSQL.

      What is WSL 2?

      WSL 2 is a new version of the Windows Subsystem for Linux architecture that powers the Windows Subsystem for Linux to run ELF64 Linux binaries on Windows. Its primary goals are to increase file system performance, as well as adding full system call compatibility.

      This new architecture changes how these Linux binaries interact with Windows and your computer’s hardware, but still provides the same user experience as in WSL 1 (the current widely available version).

      Individual Linux distributions can be run with either the WSL 1 or WSL 2 architecture. Each distribution can be upgraded or downgraded at any time and you can run WSL 1 and WSL 2 distributions side by side. WSL 2 uses an entirely new architecture that benefits from running a real Linux kernel.

      As a power text-mode user, I was both surprised and glad to hear (10x @erikzaadi!) about two interesting tools: tmux & ConqueTerm, which significantly changed the way I use the shell/terminal. I’ll try to keep it short and to the point, and briefly explain the most notable behavior-changing features the way I see them. Or in other words: why should you give them a try.

      tmux is screen-like. I didn’t get to learn much of screen (absolutely my bad), so it’s really not a “why tmux is better than screen” post, but simply what goodies does tmux provide.

      tmux goodies:

      • Detach and reattach to the whole session. Even when X/ssh dies: this is basic, and that’s what screen is most widely known for, but it’s so important.
        > list all sessions: tmux ls
        > attach a certain session: tmux attach [-t ]
      • Keepmultiple copy-paste buffers. It’ll stay there for as long as the session is alive. It’ll not live through reboots, but will live multiple days through ssh logins, X crashes. When using multiple tmux sessions (e.g. I have one on each screen), all share the same copy-paste buffer. Bonus: no mouse involved 🙂
        > Copy: Ctrl+B+[ . I find it much easier keyboard-wise with ‘set -g mode-keys vi’ in
      • Run command in a split: this one is very handy. Split dies when command dies.
        > tmux split [-h] top
        > tmux new-window tar -xvf /tmp/my.tar.gz

      ConqueTerm – a console buffer inside vim

      I never got to play well with Emacs. But I must admit it’s strong. One of the features I got excited about was that anything is a buffer, either a text file or a console. And since seeing it, I was looking for a vim equivalent. And just when I gave up, ConqueTerm appeared.

      ConqueTerm goodies:

      • Output is a vim buffer: it’s fun using the familiar vim tools on your output: search, navigate, select and copy, % for brace matching, etc.
      • Copy-and-paste between a regular edited file and the terminal buffer in both directions.
      • Brace matching on command line: running a complex command line with all sorts of braces? a well-configured VIM would highlight the matching brace when cursor is over it.
      • Keyboard-controlledwindow sizing and position: create the terminal buffer as a vertical split, resize, etc.
        > Also possible to modify after creation: I found Ctrl+W+J (capital J) pretty useful, as well as the other H,K,L vim navigation keyskeys). It changes the window layout by saying “current window stays on bottom and uses all of it.

      2 thoughts on “ Improve your shell experience with tmux & ConqueTerm ”

      Nice post!. Two things that made my life easier in tmux:

      1) Rebind default prefix key to Ctrl-a:
      set -g prefix C-a
      unbind C-b
      bind C-a send-prefix

      2) And dump x clipboard to tmux paste buffer and dump tmux copy buffer into x clipboard:
      bind C-p run “tmux set-buffer \”$(xclip -o)\”; tmux paste-buffer”
      bind C-y run “tmux show-buffer | xclip -selection clipboard”

      @pablo – Nice!
      I got very used to ^B as I shamefully didn’t get used to screen. The x clipboard thing looks so useful! applying immediately 🙂

      How to use tmux on linux (and why it’s better than screen)

      In this tutorial, we will teach you how to use Tmux. It is an application that allows you to split window on terminal into multiple others. So, in a single window, we can have several instances of the terminal open, similar to GNU screen or Byobu.

      Tmux is ideal for speeding up terminal tasks on your VPS, especially if you are a sysadmin, who needs to handle several terminals in one.

      How to Install Tmux on Ubuntu or Debian

      Tmux is a tool in the official Debian and Ubuntu repositories. That makes it incredibly easy to install. To do this, we will use APT, which is the package manager for Debian and Ubuntu. With this package manager, we will be able to install, uninstall, and update packages without worrying about dependencies. First, you’ll need to access your virtual private server through SSH. Check out our PuTTY tutorial if you’re having trouble.

      Installing Tmux will require administrator privileges, so we suggest adding sudo to the command.

      Run this command to install the utility:

      Afterward, it is a good idea to confirm the installed version. We can do it with the following command:

      Tmux is now correctly installed and ready to use.

      Firsts Steps with Tmux

      Tmux is an application that is based on sessions. That is, once you run the utility it opens a new session. In each session, there can be several terminals as Tmux is a terminal multiplexer.

      So to start using Tmux, we need to connect to a new session. This is done with the command:

      Once the session starts, we will see the same terminal as always, except for a green bar at the bottom. This bar indicates the active session, and that we are using Tmux. It is also possible to name the session. To do this, we can type the following command when creating one:

      The most important utility of Tmux is that it allows different instances of terminals in a single window. In other words, in one session. Additionally, we will be able to access them quickly and easily from the keyboard.

      To disconnect from a Tmux a session, we need to type the following command:

      Using the Prefixes to Control Tmux

      Tmux is based on commands that perform specific tasks. However, in order to execute these commands, a prefix must first be used. The prefix tells Tmux that a command is going to be executed. By default, the prefix is CTRL+B.

      So the correct way to structure commands in Tmux is:

      That is, we have to press the keys CTRL+B and then the command. For example, to create a new session, the command would be C. So, to create a new session we need to press CTRL+B and next CCTRL+B, C.

      Some Helpful Commands

      Another fantastic feature of Tmux is that we can “save” a specific session. For example, if we are using htop and we use the detach command (CTRL+B, D) when we run Tmux again we will find the process still works. This is very useful for performing commands that take a long time to run, like backups.

      So, we can start a new session by typing in this command into the command line:

      In that new session, we are going to run htop. Htop is a tool to monitor system resources.

      Then, we use the detach command to disconnect. So, first, we enter the prefix by pressing CTRL+B and next, the command D. We will see that we get the next message in the terminal.

      Now we need to get back to our “attached” session. To do this we execute the following command in the terminal:

      Since we have not used a name for the session, then we would use the value 0. The command looks like this:

      And we will be back connected to our previous session.

      It is possible to do several sessions with the command C. To navigate between them we use the identifier number. For example, the first session we create from the regular terminal would be 0. If we create another session it corresponds to the number 1.

      We can see the current session with the green bar at the bottom of the window.

      We can see how many Tmux sessions are open with the following command:

      Managing Panes

      Let’s learn how to manipulate terminal panels, otherwise known as split windows. We can divide a window horizontally, with the command

      It would have to be – CTRL+B

      And to do the same but vertically – CTRL+B %

      To switch between panels, we can use the command – CTRL+B, arrow key (in the direction of the pane you want to go to)

      And then we can navigate through each of the panels. If we want to close only one we must press – CTRL+D.

      Tmux Cheat Sheet

      Finally, we want to share a cheat sheet to use as a reference:

      Sessions

      Start a new Session:

      Start a new session with a name:

      Start an attached session:

      If the Tmux session has a name:

      List all Tmux sessions:

      Exit the utility:

      Window Handling

      New window +c
      Next window +n
      List all windows +w
      Rename a window +,
      Previous window +p
      Find a window +f
      Kill a window +&

      Pane Handling

      Split panes vertically +%
      Split panes horizontally +“
      Toggle last active plane +;
      Swap panes +o
      Kill pane +x
      Show pane numbers +q
      Move plan left +<
      Move plan right +>
      Switching between panes +arrow key

      Conclusion

      As we learned, Tmux is an important tool that helps use the terminal efficiently by splitting windows and navigating through sessions.

      The management of this utility is done through commands. We have learned the most basic and useful ones for daily work.

      So if you want to know more about this tool, we recommend you consult its official documentation.

      Edward is a Content Editor with years of experience in IT as a writer, marketer, and Linux enthusiast. Edward’s goal is to encourage readers to establish an impactful online presence. He also really loves dogs, guitars, and everything related to space.

      Kill all the tmux sessions:

      In tmux, hit the prefix ctrl+b (my modified prefix is ctrl+a) and then:

      Sessions

      Windows (tabs)

      Panes (splits)

      Sync Panes

      You can do this by switching to the appropriate window, typing your Tmux prefix (commonly Ctrl-B or Ctrl-A) and then a colon to bring up a Tmux command line, and typing:

      You can optionally add on or off to specify which state you want; otherwise the option is simply toggled. This option is specific to one window, so it won’t change the way your other sessions or windows operate. When you’re done, toggle it off again by repeating the command. tip source

      Resizing Panes

      You can also resize panes if you don’t like the layout defaults. I personally rarely need to do this, though it’s handy to know how. Here is the basic syntax to resize panes:

      Copy mode:

      Pressing PREFIX [ places us in Copy mode. We can then use our movement keys to move our cursor around the screen. By default, the arrow keys work. we set our configuration file to use Vim keys for moving between windows and resizing panes so we wouldn’t have to take our hands off the home row. tmux has a vi mode for working with the buffer as well. To enable it, add this line to .tmux.conf:

      With this option set, we can use h, j, k, and l to move around our buffer.

      To get out of Copy mode, we just press the ENTER key. Moving around one character at a time isn’t very efficient. Since we enabled vi mode, we can also use some other visible shortcuts to move around the buffer.

      For example, we can use “w” to jump to the next word and “b” to jump back one word. And we can use “f”, followed by any character, to jump to that character on the same line, and “F” to jump backwards on the line.

      Configurations Options:

      Resources:

      Notes:

      Changelog:

      • 1411143833002 – Added toggle zoom under Panes (splits) section.
      • 1411143833002 – Added Sync Panes
      • 1414276652677 – Added Kill all tmux sessions
      • 1438585211173 – corrected create and add next and previus thanks to @justinjhendrick

      Request an Update:

      We Noticed that our Cheatsheet is growing and people are coloberating to add new tips and tricks, so please tweet to me what would you like to add and let’s make it better!