In Windows, you can view the file extension for a single file or all files, all the time. The method for viewing the file extension for a single file is the same in every version of Windows, but viewing all file extensions differs between versions. Select an option below and follow the instructions for viewing file extensions.
If you want to change a file’s extension, see: How to change a file extension.
To change the default program that is associated with a file extension, see: How to associate a file with a program in Windows.
Viewing the file extension of a single file
- Select the Properties option.
- In the Properties window, similar to what is shown below, see the Type of file entry, which is the file type and extension. In the example below, the file is a TXT file with a .txt file extension. In this case, the file opens with the TextPad program.
Always show file extensions of all files
Users who are more familiar with computer files and file extensions may want to view file extensions permanently to help with locating and browsing files. To do this, follow the steps below for your version of Windows.
- In the Control Panel, type file in the Search Control Panel text field. Click File Explorer Options in the search results.
- In the File Explorer Options window, click the Viewtab.
- Uncheck the box for the Hide extensions for known file type option.
Windows 2000, XP, Vista, 7, and 8
- Click Folder Options.
- Click View.
- Uncheck the box for the Hide extensions for known file type option.
- Open My Computer.
- Click Tools and click Folder Options or click View and then Options depending on your version of Windows.
- In the Folder Options window, click the View tab.
- Uncheck the box for the Hide file extensions for known file types option.
MS-DOS and Windows command line
In MS-DOS, typing dir to list all files also displays the file extension of each file.
Finally, one program opens any and all of your files. There’s no need to have 30 different programs for 30 different file types. File Magic opens all your files, quickly and easily.
- All documents, presentations, and spreadsheets
- Open, view, edit, and share all photos
- View all videos, including all DVDs
- Play all music and audio files
- View all common file types
1 File types that are unsupported can be opened in binary format.
You want to open a file type that you’ve received through an email, or a file found on your hard drive, but your computer won’t let you do it. You keep getting an annoying pop-up error that says, “Windows can’t open this file”.
Why does this happen?
The primary reason why you can’t open this file type is because you don’t have the EXACT program to open that EXACT file type extension. What else could be more frustrating?
Finally. there is a way to open ALL file types 1 on your computer – without downloading or buying expensive and complicated programs.
File Magic lets you view and edit all kinds of file types, including videos, music, photos, documents, and much more. There’s no need to have several programs when ONE program handles them all.
Download File Magic now and never struggle to open a file again!
Open Your File Now
You’ve grabbed the perfect screen shot or taken a photo, done a little editing, and now you need to get it out to the world. But, which image file formats do you need? In my role as a video editor, I deal with graphics, videos, and images on a daily basis and have learned a lot about which ones work best for specific situations. The topics I am going to cover are how file types differ, common web sizes, vector versus raster art, and digital versus optical zoom.
Common Image File Types
After you are done editing, you save it and you are prompted with a window that asks you what type of file would you like it saved as. TechSmith Snagit will present you with options such as .png, jpeg, .tiff, .gif or .pdf. Other more advanced image editors (such as Adobe Photoshop) offer additional formats like .psd, .psb, .bmp, .eps, .raw, to name a few. The main difference between all of these image formats comes down to two things: compression and compatibility.
Lossy vs. Lossless Compression
All of the files I mentioned previously fall into two main categories. Lossy images, which can be described as image formats that do not store a perfect copy of the original image and thus have smaller file sizes. And lossless images, which store an exact pixel-by-pixel representation of the image, but in doing so, require more space. It’s not uncommon to come across both types when you are looking at photos on the web. The most popular lossless image formats are .tiff and .png. I always recommend editing and saving your photos in a lossless format, but when it is time to export them for the web I would use a common lossy format such as .jpeg, which allows you to choose the amount of compression, and therefore the file size and quality, that you want.
Vector vs. Raster (bitmap) Images
Other common terms that you may have heard before in regards to image formats are vector art versus raster art. Raster art is made of a certain number of pixels and vector art is based on mathematical calculations. In other words, raster art cannot be scaled beyond 100% without losing quality and vector art does not use pixels and therefore is resolution-independent. If you are a Camtasia or Snagit user, you may have noticed that some callouts are in vector form, they can be scaled without losing quality. Popular vector image formats include .eps (most common), .ai, .pdf, and .svg.
A proprietary format refers to a file format created by a company, organization, or individual. These formats are typically controlled by a company and the restriction of their use is for their own benefit. This is in contrast to an open file format that can be published and used by anyone. Some examples include Photoshop’s .psd and TechSmith Snagit’s .snag file formats. It’s best to use these formats when you plan on editing the original project at a later time, since they maintain all of the original layers and editable properties. Proprietary formats usually have a larger file size and maintain full quality of the original image. Compatibility with web services and third party image editors are where these formats fall short.
In my role as a video producer and motion graphic artist, I almost always am dealing with a bunch of different image formats. All colored image formats hold values for red, green and blue channels that make up the entire color spectrum, but certain formats offer the ability to retain an additional layer of transparency or “alpha channel” that is built into the file. I included a comparison below (the checkerboard symbolizes a transparent background) that hopefully helps you understand what I mean.
The main benefit is that the format allows you to add graphics on top of other graphics without having a “white box” around it. The most popular image format that holds an alpha channel is the .png format.
Common Web Image Sizes
The size of the images you are posting to the web can have an effect on how those images are viewed. Most photo sharing sites like Facebook and Flickr will accept higher resolution photos and convert them to a format that works well on their platforms. But if you want your photos to load quickly, for your website for instance, I would recommend finding a positive balance between file size (mb, kb) and dimensions (pixels). If your file size is too large, your photos won’t load very quickly and your visitors will lose their patience, plus search engines like Google will not hold your site in high regard. But if your dimensions are too small, you risk compromising the quality. Here is a chart below that shows common screen resolutions that should help you get started.
Optical Zoom vs. Digital Zoom
The last topic I want to cover is optical versus digital zoom. When I say these terms I am referring to using a point and shoot camera to take pictures where the subject is being enlarged. Optical zoom means that the camera is using “optics,” or a lens, to bring the subjects closer to the camera. Digital zoom means that you are actually scaling the photo. You are taking a portion of the image and enlarging it, thus faking the optical zoom look which results in a scaled version of the original. That’s why if you are using a phone to take pictures, it’s always better to physically move the camera forward or back to fill up the frame because they have fixed lenses. Optical zoom is always better, and I do not recommend using zoom on your phone if you want crisp, sharp photos.
I hoped this helped shed some light on image formats and helped you understand some common terms around them. Remember, having a solid base understanding of how digital images work will go a long way in helping you produce better photos for the web!
When planning for your migration, if not using MigDocs.xml, you should identify the file types, files, folders, and settings that you want to migrate. First, you should determine the standard file locations on each computer, such as My Documents. , C:\Data , and company-specified locations, such as \EngineeringDrafts. Next, you should determine and locate the non-standard locations. For non-standard locations, consider the following:
File types. Consider which file types need to be included and excluded from the migration. You can create this list based on common applications used in your organization. Applications normally use specific file name extensions. For example, Microsoft Office Word primarily uses .doc, .docx and .dotx file name extension. However, it also uses other file types, such as templates (.dot files), on a less frequent basis.
Excluded locations. Consider the locations on the computer that should be excluded from the migration (for example, %WINDIR% and Program Files).
New locations. Decide where files should be migrated to on the destination computer for example, \My Documents, a designated folder, or a folder matching the files’ name and location on the source computer. For example, you might have shared data on source machine or you might wish to clean up documents outside the user profiles on the source system. Identify any data that needs to be redirected to a new location in the apply phase. This can be accomplished with location modify rules.
Once you have verified which files and file types that the end users work with regularly, you will need to locate them. Files may be saved to a single folder or scattered across a drive. A good starting point for finding files types to include is to look at the registered file types on the computer.
To find the registered file types on a computer running Windows 7 or Windows 8
Click Start. Open Control Panel, click Control Panel Home, and click Programs.
Click Default Programs, and click Associate a file type or protocol with a program.
What to do When 1KB Files Won’t Open
Why won’t your 1KB file open? You’ve tried double-clicking it, but it doesn’t come up, or you see an error message. So what do you do? This is a common issue with various file extensions because many extensions can be opened by multiple programs, and many programs can open a variety of extensions. It sounds confusing, but it’s a lot easier to understand than you might think!
Which program should you use?
Your computer may be trying to use the wrong program to open the 1KB file, or it may not have a program installed that can open the file. There are a few different programs you can use to open 1KB files, including Binary Data. Try downloading one or more of these from the manufacturer’s website.
What type of file is it?
The file type is the key to opening 1KB files. 1KB files are usually considered Uncommon Files. You may already have a program on your computer that can open this type of file.
If the file type is unknown, you can find it in the file properties by following the steps below.
- Right-click the file and click “Properties”.
- Look under “Type of File” for the file type.
- Right-click the file and click “Properties“.
- Look under “Kind” for the file type.
Who developed the software?
If you can’t find the right program to open your 1KB file, a software developer might be able to help you. Contact the developer of one of the most common programs for 1KB files from the list below.
|Binary Data||is developed by||Microsoft Developer|
Why not try a universal file viewer?
A universal file viewer is a program that can open files with a wide range of extensions, depending on the file format. When you have 1KB files you can’t open, a universal file viewer like File Magic (Download) can open it for you. Just remember that some files aren’t compatible with this type of program, and they will only open in binary format.
Opens all your files
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1 File types that are unsupported can be opened in binary format.
The most influential people strive for genuine buy in and commitment — they don’t rely on compliance techniques that only secure short-term persuasion. That was our conclusion after interviewing over 100 highly respected influences across many different industries and organizations for our recent book.
These high-impact influencers follow a pattern of four steps that all of us can put into action. In earlier pieces we covered Step 1: Go for great outcomes and Step 2: Listen past your blind spots. Later we’ll cover Step 4: When you’ve done enough… do more. Here we cover Step 3: Engage others in “their there.”
To understand why this step is so important, imagine that you’re at one end of a shopping mall — say, the northeast corner, by a cafe. Next, imagine that a friend of yours is at the opposite end of the mall, next to a toy store. And imagine that you’re telling that person how to get to where you are.
Now, picture yourself saying, “To get to where I am, start in the northeast corner by a cafe.” That doesn’t make sense, does it? Because that’s where you are, not where the other person is.
Yet that’s how we often try to convince others — on our terms, from our assumptions, and based on our experiences. We present our case from our point of view. There’s a communication chasm between us and them, but we’re acting as if they’re already on our side of the gap.
Like in the shopping mall example, we make a mistake by starting with how we see things (“our here”). To help the other person move, we need to start with how they see things (“their there”).
For real influence we need to go from our here to their there to engage others in three specific ways:
- Situational Awareness: Show that You Get “It.” Show that you understand the opportunities and challenges your conversational counterpart is facing. Offer ideas that work in the person’s there. When you’ve grasped their reality in a way that rings true, you’ll hear comments like “You really get it!” or “You actually understand what I’m dealing with here.”
- Personal Awareness: You Get “Them.” Show that you understand his or her strengths, weaknesses, goals, hopes, priorities, needs, limitations, fears, and concerns. In addition, you demonstrate that you’re willing to connect with them on a personal level. When you do this right, you’ll hear people say things like “You really get me!” or “You actually understand where I’m coming from on this.”
- Solution Awareness: You Get Their Path to Progress. Show people a positive path that enables them to make progress on their own terms. Give them options and alternatives that empower them. Based on your understanding of their situation and what’s at stake for them personally, offer possibilities for making things better — and help them think more clearly, feel better, and act smarter. When you succeed, you’ll hear comments like, “That could really work!” or “I see how that would help me.”
One of our favorite examples involves Mike Critelli, former CEO of the extraordinarily successful company, Pitney Bowes. Mike was one of the highly prestigious Good to Great CEOs featured in the seminal book by Jim Collins on how the most successful businesses achieve their results.
One of Mike’s many strengths is the ability to engage his team on their terms to achieve high levels of performance and motivation. When we asked him about this, he said, “Very often what motivates people are the little gestures, and a leader needs to listen for those. It’s about picking up on other things that are most meaningful to people.”
For example, one employee had a passing conversation with Mike about the challenges of adopting a child, pointing out that Pitney Bowes had an inadequate adoption benefit. A few weeks after that, he and his wife received a letter from Mike congratulating them on their new child — along with a check for the amount of the new adoption benefit the company had just started offering.
When he retired, the Pitney Bowes employees put together a video in which they expressed their appreciation for his positive influence over the years. They all talk about ways that Mike “got” them — personal connections and actions that have accumulated over time into a reputation that attracted great people to the organization and motivated them to stay.
It’s a moving set of testimonials, and it’s telling about Critelli’s ability to “get” people on their own terms — to go to their there — that they openly express their appreciation permanently captured on video for open public viewing.
Remember, they did this after he was no longer in power.
Like Mike Critelli does, when you practice all three of these ways of “getting” others — situational, personal, and solution-oriented — you understand who people are, what they’re facing, and what they need in order to move forward. This is a powerful way to achieve great results while strengthening your relationships.
When you’re trying to influence, don’t start by trying to pull others into your here. Instead, go to their there by to asking yourself:
Unusual Options Activity is popular data some traders like to use when informing their trading decision. While there are lots of regular options trading that happens everyday, unusual options activity is when abnormally large options trades are made, usually as a large bet or for hedging.
What is Unusual Options Activity?
Unusual options activity, also known as UOA, occurs when there is an unusually large number of options traded for a given stock. It could be an indication that someone is making a large and aggressive bullish or bearish bet on a particular stock.
For example, you might see an alert to something like this:
Ford Motor Option Alert: Jun 19 $5 Puts Sweep (32) below Bid!: 2025 @ $0.458 vs 108514 OI; Ref=$5.015
Here’s how you’d break this alert down:
- Jun 19 = Expiration of Contract
- $5 = Strike Price of Contract
- Puts = Right to sell
- Sweep = Routed through more than one source
- (32) Number of Sources Activity Was Collected From
- 2025 = Volume of Contracts
- @0.458 = Price of Contract
- 108514 = Open Interest
- $5.015 = Last Price
Why Pay Attention to Unusual Options Trades
Even if you don’t trade options yourself, it can be good to pay attention to unusual options activity. In short, it’s a way to see what the “smart money,” or institutional investors, are doing.
If there are several, similar unusual activities, it can give you an idea of how traders are feeling toward a particular stock, especially if there is something like an earnings report that is about to be released.
Additionally, unusually large options trades are usually made by people who have the capital to do so.
However, not all unusual options trades may be bets—it could be someone hedging stocks.
Tips to Finding Unusual Options Activity
In order for a stock to be recognized as an unusual options activity, it must show an increased amount in volume compared to its average, generally around 5 times more than its average volume. So, how do we know what to even look for in order to recognize this type of activity?
- All options trades have an expiration date. So, when a stock’s volume has increased tremendously and has a week left until expiration, we can suspect a move to happen before the expiration
- Pay attention to catalysts—there are two different types of catalysts you’ll want to pay attention to:
- Transparent Catalysts: Examples of these can be earnings reports or dividend announcements. Generally, when we notice that unusual activity is occurring before these reports are released we can assume betting or hedging is occurring on the big order.
- Unexpected Catalysts: As the name suggests, these can be considered unplanned events, like CEO announcements or short reports. These types of catalysts can disrupt your trading plan and are much harder to predict.
- Unusual options activity may work best with short-term strategies, so looking at charts and price action can help capture these types of movements.
How to Find Unusual Options Alerts in Benzinga Pro
There are several Unusual Options Activity* scanners on the market, and with a Benzinga Pro is one on the market. There are several tools within Benzinga Pro that allow you to search for Unusual Options Activity.
The Unusual Options Signals tool is designed specifically for helping you to get alerts on unusual options activity. These real-time alerts can be filtered by Watchlists, float, price, volume, and more. You can also choose what type of alerts you receive, including desktop, audio, or synthesized voice.
This tool only shows large options trades, including large blocks or sweeps.
The Calendar tool allows you to search for unusual options data by date. This is extremely beneficial if your trading plan incorporates the usage of historical data.
The Calendar tool also allows you to get more granular by searching for a variety of filters, including contract type, strike price, midpoint, and more.
Try out the Unusual Options Activity feature for free with a two-week trial of Benzinga Pro—no credit card required.
Even if you don’t trade options, unusual options activity alerts can be useful when informing your trading decisions. They can give you ideas, help you see what institutional investors are doing, and more. You don’t have to place unusually large options trades yourself, but you can use it to get a feel for trader sentiment.
Video: Unusual Options Activity
Disclaimer: Benzinga is a news organization and does not provide financial advice and does not issue stock recommendations or offers to buy stock or sell any security. Benzinga Pro is for informational purposes and should not be viewed as recommendations. Benzinga Pro will never tell you whether to buy or sell a stock. It will only inform your trading decisions. You can find our full disclaimer located here.
*Unusual Options Activity available for an additional fee on top of subscription.
“ How many types of files are there in Linux/Unix and what are they? ” This is a common question to every person who starts to learn Linux. O.K, why is it that much important to know file types?
Answer: This is because Linux considers every thing as a file. When ever you start working on Linux/Unix box you have to deal with different file types(linux/unix) to effectively manage them
How many types of file are there in Linux/Unix?
By default Unix have only 3 types of files. They are..
Special files(This category is having 5 sub types in it.)
So in practical we have total 7 types(1+1+5) of files in Linux/Unix. And in Solaris we have 8 types. And you can see the file type indication at leftmost part of “ls -l” command.
Here are those files type.
- Block file(b)
- Character device file(c)
- Named pipe file or just a pipe file(p)
- Symbolic link file(l)
- Socket file(s)
For your information there is one more file type called door file(D) which is present in Sun Solaris as mention earlier. A door is a special file for inter-process communication between a client and server (so total 8 types in Unix machines). We will learn about different types of files as below sequence for every file type.
Regular file type Explained in Linux
These are the files which are indicated with “-” in ls -l command output at the starting of the line. And these files are.
How to create regular files in Linux/Unix?
Ans: Use touch/vi command and redirection operators etc.
How can we list regular files?
Example listing of regular files :
Directory file type explained in Linux/Unix
These type of files contains regular files/folders/special files stored on a physical device. And this type of files will be in blue in color with link greater than or equal 2.
Example listing of directories.
How to create them?
Ans : Use mkdir command
Block file type in Linux
These files are hardware files most of them are present in /dev.
How to create them?
Ans : Use fdisk command or create virtual partition.
How can we list them in my present working directory?
ls -l | grep ^b
Example listing of Block files(for you to see these file, they are located in /dev).
Character device files in Linux
Provides a serial stream of input or output.Your terminals are classic example for this type of files.
How can we list character files in my present working directory?
ls -l | grep ^c
Example listing of character files(located in /dev)
Pipe files in Linux/Unix
The other name of pipe is a “named” pipe, which is sometimes called a FIFO. FIFO stands for “First In, First Out” and refers to the property that the order of bytes going in is the same coming out. The “name” of a named pipe is actually a file name within the file system.
How to create them?
Ans: Use mkfifo command.
How can we list character files in my present working directory?
ls -l | grep ^p
Example listing of pipe files
symbolic link files in Linux
These are linked files to other files. They are either Directory/Regular File. The inode number for this file and its parent files are same. There are two types of link files available in Linux/Unix ie soft and hard link.
How to create them?
Ans : use ln command
How can we list linked files in my present working directory?
ls -l | grep ^l
Socket files in Linux
A socket file is used to pass information between applications for communication purpose
How to create them?
Ans : You can create a socket file using socket() system call available under
Example in C programming
You can refer to this socket file using the sockfd. This is same as the file descriptor, and you can use read(), write() system calls to read and write from the socket.
How can we list Socket files in my present working directory?
ls -l | grep ^s
Example listing of socket files.
srw-rw-rw- 1 root root 0 2010-02-15 09:35 /dev/log
A tip for you guys. How to find your desired type of file ?
Ans : Use find command with -type option. For example if you want to find socket file, just use below command. find / -type s If you want to find linked file then how? Find / -type l
Windows file names have two parts; the file’s name, then a period followed by the extension (suffix). The extension is a three- or four-letter abbreviation that signifies the file type. For example, in letter.docx the filename is letter and the extension is docx. Extensions are important because they tell your computer what icon to use for the file, and what application can open the file. For example, the doc extension tells your computer that the file is a Microsoft Word file.
If you want to open a MAC OS X file in Windows, you may need to add the extension to a MAC OS X file name so Windows can recognize it. For example, if you have a Word 6 MAC OS X document named letter that you want to open in Windows, you need to rename the file letter.docx so that Word in Windows will recognize and open the file.
Note: This list is by no means a complete and exhaustive list of file extensions. If the file extension you are using is not listed below, you may find the information by looking in the software manual or software application’s Web site.
Note: If none of your file names have extensions, file extensions are hidden. See Showing File Extensions
|File Extension||File Type|
|.AIFF or .AIF||Audio Interchange File Format|
|.BAT||PC batch file|
|.CLASS or .JAVA||Java files|
|.CSV||Comma separated, variable length file (Open in Excel)|
|.DBF||dbase II, III, IV data|
|.DIF||Data Interchange format|
|.DOC or .DOCX||Microsoft Word for Windows/Word97|
|.FM3||Filemaker Pro databases (the numbers following represent the version #)|
|.GIF||Graphics Interchange Format|
|.HTM or .HTML||Web page source text|
|.JPG or JPEG||JPEG graphic|
|.MAP||Web page imagemap|
|.MDB||MS Access database|
|.MID or .MIDI||MIDI sound|
|.MOV or .QT||QuickTime Audio/Video|
|.MTB or .MTW||MiniTab|
|Acrobat -Portable document format|
|PageMaker (the numbers following represent the version #) P=publication, T=template|
|.PNG||Portable Network Graphics|
|.PPT or .PPTX||PowerPoint|
|.RTF||Rich Text Format|
|.SIT||Stuffit Compressed Archive|
|.TAR||UNIX TAR Compressed Archive|
|.TXT||ASCII text (Mac text does not contain line feeds–use DOS Washer Utility to fix)|
|.WK3||Lotus 1-2-3 (the numbers following represent the version #)|
|WPD or .WP5||WordPerfect (the numbers following represent the version #)|
|.XLS or .XLSX||Excel spreadsheet|
|.ZIP||PC Zip Compressed Archive|
Showing File Extensions
If none of your file names have extensions, file extensions are hidden. To show file extensions:
From time to time you can see files that are not associated with any program, and Windows cannot open them. File Type Advisor was created to help in this situation. This small program will provide you with a detailed description of every format in question and will recommend software to open or convert this file type.
Information About All File Formats
Everyone has at least once found themselves in a situation when they have to deal with files that are not supported by any of the programs that are available on your PC. Free File Viewer Pro was created to help recognize these files with just a few clicks. This compact program will provide you with a detailed description of every format in question as well as provide recommendations on which software to use in order to open or convert this file type.
Encyclopedia of File Formats
Free File Viewer Pro is an easy-to-use program that provides information about file formats that cannot be recognized by any other programs on your PC. The principle behind the program is that it associates itself with unknown file types and replaces the standard tool of Windows that often fails to provide any description of rare file types.
Once you add a file of an unknown type to Free File Viewer Pro, the program will scan a large database and as a result, provide all the necessary information about the filename extension and associated file format. It will also show of programs that support such files.
In addition, media files can be played automatically the moment they are opened in Free File Viewer Pro with the help of a built-in media player.
Information about popular file types and software to open them is contributed by users of Free File Viewer Pro.
With new formats appearing from time to time, you can keep your software up-to-date by checking for newer versions. You can set the frequency of updates checks in the ‘Help’ menu.
Keeping software up-to-date is important, as some viruses use known vulnerabilities in older versions of popular software. Furthermore, newer versions typically include bug fixes and improvements.
How to get Free File Viewer Pro?
To download Free File Viewer Pro, click here. Then, follow the setup wizard instructions to install the program on your computer. Our software may also come bundled with another program. In this case, you can choose whether to install Free File Viewer Pro along with the main program. Programs in bundles are usually more beneficial not only due to lower price per each, but also in terms of saving your time, as you don’t have to look for similar software somewhere else. Note also, that all the programs feature free trial versions that will help you see if they match your expectations.
How to uninstall Free File Viewer Pro?
Free File Viewer Pro can be easily uninstalled using the “Add/Remove Programs” or “Programs” section of Windows Control Panel:
– Open Control Panel (on Windows Vista/7: Start Menu – Control Panel; on Windows 8: move mouse cursor to the right upper or lower corner of your Desktop, select Settings – Control Panel; on Windows XP: Start Menu – Settings – Control Panel).
– Select “Add or Remove Programs” on Windows XP, or “Uninstall a program” on Windows Vista/7/8.
– Click on the ” Free File Viewer Pro” entry in the list.