Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

In computing, virtualization can mean a number of things. The most common definition defines it as creating a virtual version of something on a computer, for instance a virtual operating system that runs on a PC.

When Microsoft launched Windows 7, it did not want to make the same mistake it did when it launched Windows Vista. To avoid the majority of compatibility issues that went along with the upgrade, it created Windows XP Mode for professional versions of the operating system.

The virtual operating system emulated Windows XP on Windows 7, allowing companies and users to run software not compatible with Windows 7 but with XP to run on the newer operating system.

While XP Mode is no longer supported due to the retirement of the operating system, virtualization software such as Virtual PC, Virtual Box or VMWare Player are.

While those may not require hardware virtualization support to run, some may and others will run better if the processor supports virtualization.

Find out if your cpu supports it

Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

There are quite a few options to find out if the cpu of your PC supports virtualization. If you know maker and model, you can look it up online right away but those information may not be available.

While you may know that your computer has an Intel or AMD processor, you may not know the cpu’s ID as they are usually cryptic.

The Intel Processor Identification Utility displays a variety of information about Intel cpus. Among the information are whether it supports virtualization or not. You need to switch to cpu technologies to find out about that. If you see “yes” listed there next to Intel Virtualization Technology then you can be certain that it supports hardware virtualization.

If AMD is the manufacturer of your computer’s cpu you need to download and run the AMD Virtualization Technology and Microsoft Hyper-V System Compatibility Check Utility instead which you can download from the manufacturer’s website.

Third-party tools

Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

There are third-party applications that you can run instead. This may make sense for example if you do not know the manufacturer of the cpu.

Securable is a free program for Windows that you can run on your system to find out if hardware virtualization is supported or not. You can run the program right after download as it does not need to be installed.

It will display information about hardware virtualization, hardware D.E.P. and architecture support of the processor.

Another program that you can run right away after download is Microsoft’s Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Detection Tool. The program checks if the processor supports hardware virtualization (hav) and if the feature is enabled on the system.

Microsoft has designed the application to launch alongside Windows XP Mode. While XP Mode itself is no longer supported, it is still possible to use the program to find about about hardware virtualization support.

Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

Virtual Checker detects virtualization support as well and will display to you whether it is enabled or not. The free program can be downloaded from this location.

Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

As you can see, there are quite a few options to find out whether your cpu supports virtualization and whether it is enabled or not.

Manual check

As mentioned earlier, you may look up the processor online to find out about virtualization support. Unless you know the ID of the cpu already, you need to look it up first.

I have a laptop with Intel Core i5 M 450 @ 2.40GHz which apparently has VT-x but not VT-d. I have Ubuntu 12.04 32bit but would like to have a virtual 64bit terminal-based Linux running on it. How do I know if the BIOS has this VT-x feature activated without having to reboot?

7 Answers 7

You can use rdmsr from msr-tools to read register IA32_FEATURE_CONTROL (address 0x3a). The kernel module msr has to be loaded for this.

On most Linux systems:

Values 3 and 5 mean it’s activated.

from cpu-checker. On Intel, which has the most complicated logic, kvm-ok checks that if bit 0 of rdmsr 0x3a (the lock bit) is set, bit 2 (which allows virt use outside of SMX mode, something to do with trusted boot) must also be set. If the output of rdmsr 0x3a is anything but 1 or 3, you will be able to use kvm. kvm will set bit 2 of the msr if necessary, I expect virtualbox and the rest have the same logic.

Install cpu-checker and run “kvm-ok”

If the CPU is enabled, you should see something like:

Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

In linux you can check cpuinfo:

Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

I found that scai’s answer doesn’t work on my AMD Ryzen systems.

This however works really well for me, even on Intel:

( systool is found in the sysfsutils package on most distros.)

For Intel’s VT-D / AMD’s IOMMU, I came up with this solution:

(It even worked for me if the iommu kernel parameters are not set.)

A simple approach to confirm that Vt-D is enabled in the BIOS is through the Linux system. If the VT-D is enable in the BIOS and Iommu=on in the grub.cfg then the below folder structure is created automatically to hold the Virtual devices.

Whereas if either one of the options VT-D or Iommu is not configured/enabled then the above mentioned folder structure is not created. This behavior is confirmed in CentOS 7.4 and Ubuntu. Hopefully this behavior is similar for other operating systems as well but this would need to be confirmed.

KVM, Kernel-based Virtual Machine, is a hypervisor built into the Linux kernel. It is similar to Xen in purpose but much simpler to get running. Unlike native QEMU, which uses emulation, KVM is a special operating mode of QEMU that uses CPU extensions (HVM) for virtualization via a kernel module.

Using KVM, one can run multiple virtual machines running unmodified GNU/Linux, Windows, or any other operating system. (See Guest Support Status for more information.) Each virtual machine has private virtualized hardware: a network card, disk, graphics card, etc.

Differences between KVM and Xen, VMware, or QEMU can be found at the KVM FAQ.

This article does not cover features common to multiple emulators using KVM as a backend. You should see related articles for such information.

Contents

Checking support for KVM

Hardware support

KVM requires that the virtual machine host’s processor has virtualization support (named VT-x for Intel processors and AMD-V for AMD processors). You can check whether your processor supports hardware virtualization with the following command:

If nothing is displayed after running either command, then your processor does not support hardware virtualization, and you will not be able to use KVM.

Kernel support

Arch Linux kernels provide the required kernel modules to support KVM.

  • One can check if the necessary modules, kvm and either kvm_amd or kvm_intel , are available in the kernel with the following command:

The module is available only if it is set to either y or m .

  • Then, ensure that the kernel modules are automatically loaded, with the command:

If the command returns nothing, the module needs to be loaded manually, see Kernel modules#Manual module handling.

Para-virtualization with Virtio

Para-virtualization provides a fast and efficient means of communication for guests to use devices on the host machine. KVM provides para-virtualized devices to virtual machines using the Virtio API as a layer between the hypervisor and guest.

All Virtio devices have two parts: the host device and the guest driver.

Kernel support

Use the following command to check if the VIRTIO modules are available in the kernel inside the virtual machine:

Then, check if the kernel modules are automatically loaded with the command:

In case the above commands return nothing, you need to load the kernel modules manually.

List of para-virtualized devices

  • network device (virtio-net)
  • block device (virtio-blk)
  • controller device (virtio-scsi)
  • serial device (virtio-serial)
  • balloon device (virtio-balloon)

How to use KVM

See the main article: QEMU.

Tips and tricks

Nested virtualization

Nested virtualization enables existing virtual machines to be run on third-party hypervisors and on other clouds without any modifications to the original virtual machines or their networking.

On host, enable nested feature for kvm_intel :

Verify that feature is activated:

Enable the “host passthrough” mode to forward all CPU features to the guest system:

  1. If using QEMU, run the guest virtual machine with the following command: qemu-system-x86_64 -enable-kvm -cpu host .
  2. If using virt-manager, change the CPU model to host-passthrough .
  3. If using virsh, use virsh edit vm-name and change the CPU line to

Boot VM and check if vmx flag is present:

Enabling huge pages

alt=”Merge-arrows-2.png” width=”48″ height=”48″ />This article or section is a candidate for merging with QEMU. alt=”Merge-arrows-2.png” width=”48″ height=”48″ />

You may also want to enable hugepages to improve the performance of your virtual machine. With an up to date Arch Linux and a running KVM you probably already have everything you need. Check if you have the directory /dev/hugepages . If not, create it. Now we need the right permissions to use this directory. The default permission is root’s uid and gid with 0755, but we want anyone in the kvm group to have access to hugepages.

Add to your /etc/fstab :

Of course the gid must match that of the kvm group or specify the group name directly with gid=kvm . The mode of 1770 allows anyone in the group to create files but not unlink or rename each other’s files. Make sure /dev/hugepages is mounted properly:

Now you can calculate how many hugepages you need. Check how large your hugepages are:

Normally that should be 2048 kB ≙ 2 MB. Let us say you want to run your virtual machine with 1024 MB. 1024 / 2 = 512. Add a few extra so we can round this up to 550. Now tell your machine how many hugepages you want:

If you had enough free memory you should see:

If the number is smaller, close some applications or start your virtual machine with less memory (number_of_pages x 2):

Note the -mem-path parameter. This will make use of the hugepages.

Now you can check, while your virtual machine is running, how many pages are used:

The primary reasons to update from WSL 1 to WSL 2 are to:

  • increase file system performance,
  • support full system call compatibility.

WSL 2 uses the latest and greatest in virtualization technology to run a Linux kernel inside of a lightweight utility virtual machine (VM). However, WSL 2 is not a traditional VM experience.

This guide will compare WSL 1 and WSL 2, including exceptions for using WSL 1 rather than WSL 2. The primary differences between WSL 1 and WSL 2 are the use of an actual Linux kernel inside a managed VM, support for full system call compatibility, and performance across the Linux and Windows operating systems.

Comparing features

Feature WSL 1 WSL 2
Integration between Windows and Linux
Fast boot times
Small resource foot print compared to traditional Virtual Machines
Runs with current versions of VMware and VirtualBox
Managed VM
Full Linux Kernel
Full system call compatibility
Performance across OS file systems

As you can tell from the comparison table above, the WSL 2 architecture outperforms WSL 1 in several ways, with the exception of performance across OS file systems, which can be addressed by storing your project files on the same operating system as the tools you are running to work on the project.

WSL 2 is only available in Windows 10, Version 1903, Build 18362 or higher. Check your Windows version by selecting the Windows logo key + R, type winver, select OK. (Or enter the ver command in Windows Command Prompt). You may need to update to the latest Windows version. For builds lower than 18362, WSL is not supported at all.

WSL 2 will work with VMware 15.5.5+ and VirtualBox 6+. Learn more in our FAQs.

What’s new in WSL 2

WSL 2 is a major overhaul of the underlying architecture and uses virtualization technology and a Linux kernel to enable new features. The primary goals of this update are to increase file system performance and add full system call compatibility.

WSL 2 architecture

A traditional VM experience can be slow to boot up, is isolated, consumes a lot of resources, and requires your time to manage it. WSL 2 does not have these attributes.

WSL 2 provides the benefits of WSL 1, including seamless integration between Windows and Linux, fast boot times, a small resource footprint, and requires no VM configuration or management. While WSL 2 does use a VM, it is managed and run behind the scenes, leaving you with the same user experience as WSL 1.

Full Linux kernel

The Linux kernel in WSL 2 is built by Microsoft from the latest stable branch, based on the source available at kernel.org. This kernel has been specially tuned for WSL 2, optimizing for size and performance to provide an amazing Linux experience on Windows. The kernel will be serviced by Windows updates, which means you will get the latest security fixes and kernel improvements without needing to manage it yourself.

The WSL 2 Linux kernel is open source. If you’d like to learn more, check out the blog post Shipping a Linux Kernel with Windows written by the team that built it.

Increased file IO performance

File intensive operations like git clone, npm install, apt update, apt upgrade, and more are all noticeably faster with WSL 2.

The actual speed increase will depend on which app you’re running and how it is interacting with the file system. Initial versions of WSL 2 run up to 20x faster compared to WSL 1 when unpacking a zipped tarball, and around 2-5x faster when using git clone, npm install and cmake on various projects.

Full system call compatibility

Linux binaries use system calls to perform functions such as accessing files, requesting memory, creating processes, and more. Whereas WSL 1 used a translation layer that was built by the WSL team, WSL 2 includes its own Linux kernel with full system call compatibility. Benefits include:

A whole new set of apps that you can run inside of WSL, such as Docker and more.

Any updates to the Linux kernel are immediately ready for use. (You don’t have to wait for the WSL team to implement updates and add the changes).

Exceptions for using WSL 1 rather than WSL 2

We recommend that you use WSL 2 as it offers faster performance and 100% system call compatibility. However, there are a few specific scenarios where you might prefer using WSL 1. Consider using WSL 1 if:

  • Your project files must be stored in the Windows file system. WSL 1 offers faster access to files mounted from Windows.
    • If you will be using your WSL Linux distribution to access project files on the Windows file system, and these files cannot be stored on the Linux file system, you will achieve faster performance across the OS files systems by using WSL 1.
    • File performance across the Windows and Linux operating systems is faster in WSL 1 than WSL 2, so if you are using Windows applications to access Linux files, you will currently achieve faster performance with WSL 1.
    • WSL 2’s memory usage grows and shrinks as you use it. When a process frees memory this is automatically returned to Windows. However, as of right now WSL 2 does not yet release cached pages in memory back to Windows until the WSL instance is shut down. If you have long running WSL sessions, or access a very large amount of files, this cache can take up memory on Windows. We are tracking the work to improve this experience on the WSL Github repository issue 4166.

    Consider trying the VS Code Remote WSL Extension to enable you to store your project files on the Linux file system, using Linux command line tools, but also using VS Code on Windows to author, edit, debug, or run your project in an internet browser without any of the performance slow-downs associated with working across the Linux and Windows file systems. Learn more.

    Do I have a 32-bit system or 64-bit system? How to tell if my computer is 32-bit or 64-bit? How to find out if my system is 64 bit capable or not? Am I running 32-bit Ubuntu or 64-bit Ubuntu? Am I running 32-bit Ubuntu on a 64-bit CPU? Do I have 32- or 64-bit Windows?

    These are some common questions that users often wonder about. Finding out whether a computer is 32-bit or 64-bit is fairly simple. Before we see how to tell whether your computer is 32-bit or 64-bit, first let’s see the difference between the two systems.

    32-bit vs 64-bit Systems: What’s the difference?

    Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    You’ll see the system information on the next screen. In here, you should look for System Type.

    Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    As you can see in the image above, it says “64-bit Operating System, x64-based processor”.

    Which means that I have the 64-bit Windows operating system installed on a 64-bit CPU.

    That’s how it works on Windows. Now let me show you how to find out whether you have a 32-bit or 64-bit system on Linux.

    How to know whether your computer is 32-bit or 64-bit on Linux

    If you’re using Ubuntu or any other form of Linux, it’s still easy to find out whether your system is 32-bit or 64-bit. Mind that we’re talking about the processor here, not the OS itself.

    Open a terminal and run the following command:

    You should see a result like this:

    Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    You need to look for the line that starts with CPU op-mode. As you can see in the above result, my CPU can support 32-bit and 64-bit. This means I have a 64-bit CPU.

    If you see only 32-bit under CPU op-mode, you have a 32-bit system.

    How to tell if Ubuntu is 32- or 64-bit

    So, we just saw how to find out whether our system is 32 bit or 64-bit. But how can you learn whether the Ubuntu you installed on your system is 32-bit or 64-bit?

    I mean, a 64-bit system can support both 32-bit and 64-bit operating systems. So if you have a 64-bit system, it’s better (and recommended) to install a 64-bit OS.

    To check whether the installed Ubuntu OS is 32-bit or 64-bit, we’ll use the same command we used in the previous section:

    In the result, look for the line starting with Architecture. This will tell you the OS architecture.

    • x86, i686 or i386 means 32-bit Linux
    • x86_64 , amd64 or x64 means 64-bit Linux

    In my case, I had x86_64 in the result, which means I have 64-bit Ubuntu installed.

    Alternatively, you can use this command that we saw in an older article about finding your Ubuntu Unity version:

    The result will be x86, i686, i386, x86_64, x64, etc. And you can easily work out the OS architecture from it.

    You can also use the arch command:

    The output will indicate whether your installed Linux system is 32-bit or 64-bit.

    Checking if you have 32-bit or 64-bit ARM processor

    As suggested by It’s FOSS reader, Hugh, the above suggestions may not work for ARM based devices like Raspberry Pi.

    Here, you can install the inxi tool and get the necessary information:

    The output may show something like this:

    As you can see, it says 32 bits, signifying it to be a 32-bit processor.

    I hope this quick post helped you find out whether you have a 32-bit or 64-bit CPU and a 32-bit or 64-bit operating system.

    One of the most powerful features baked into Windows 10 is native support for hardware virtualization. This is via a virtualization platform called Hyper-V. Once you enable virtualization on Windows 10, it opens the door to creating a virtual machine on your system. This machine is completely separate from your main system. You can thus go crazy with it. If you want, install anything you want on it without worrying about messing up with the main system.

    Before you can do that though, you’d have to enable hardware virtualization on Windows 10.

    Hardware Virtualization System Requirements

    • Windows 10 Pro or Enterprise
    • 64-bit processor with Second Level Address Translation (SLAT)
    • 4GB system RAM at minimum
    • BIOS-level Hardware Virtualization support

    Check Hardware Virtualization support

    1. Launch a command prompt or Windows PowerShell window.
    2. Enter the command given below.
    3. Wait few seconds (It takes a few seconds to gather information about your system but then gives you a result)
    4. Look under Hyper-V Requirements.
    5. See that Virtualization Enabled In Firmware reads Yes. (If it does, then you can use Windows Sandbox.)

    Alternatively, you can also see if Virtualization is enabled under the Performance tab of the Task manager.

    The virtualization status will be in enabled mode if you check on the CPU performance screen. If it’s not, you’ll have to enable this in the BIOS or UEFI settings.

    Enable Virtualization on PC BIOS Setting

    Every PC has a different version of BIOS screen and settings. Also, the steps to steps to enable virtualization from the BIOS depends on the PC manufacturer. Normally, BIOS settings can be accessed using the function keys (F1, F2, F3, F10, or F12) during boot. On some PCs, it’s the ESC, or Delete key.

    1. Go to Windows Settings
    2. Click on Update& Security
    3. Now click on Recovery
    4. Click Restartnow under Advanced startup.
    5. Go to Troubleshoot
    6. Click on AdvancedOptions
    7. Now click on UEFIFirmwareSettings
    8. Click Restart.

    This method only works if you use UEFI-boot. And this is also a setting that can be changed from the BIOS. If you don’t know this, you don’t have to worry about it. All Windows PCs ship with UEFI boot enabled by default.

    Look for something like an Advanced menu or tab. You’ll most likely find the setting you need to turn on under this. In addition to all the other things that can be different, this can also be labeled differently. It could be Advanced Mode, or simply Configuration like it is on my Lenovo Ideapad.

    • Intel Virtualization Technology,
    • AMD-V,
    • Hyper-V
    • VT-X
    • Vanderpool
    • SVM

    Enable Hyper-V Virtualization in Windows 10

    Now that virtualization support is enabled in the BIOS, enable it on Windows 10.

    1. Press the Windows key to get the Search box.
    2. Type “turn windows features on or off” and click on it to open it.
    3. Scroll down and check the box next to Hyper-V.
    4. Click OK.
    5. Windows will install the necessary files to enable virtualization.
    6. You’ll then be asked to reboot PC.
    7. Click Restart now.

    Advantages of Windows Virtualization

    Windows 8 was the first ever Windows version to natively support Hardware virtualization. Consequently, Windows 10 also supports it natively. But the platform has gained many features since then. This includes features like Enhanced Session Mode, high fidelity graphics, USB redirection, Linux secure boot, etc.

    With Windows virtualization, you can test apps inside a virtual machine without compromising your main system. We’ve already mentioned that at the start. And the new Windows 10 May 2019 update actually has a built-in feature that lets you do that. They call it Windows Sandbox.

    Virtualization also allows you to install a Linux shell on Windows. For instance, Ubuntu, Debian, Kali Linux, etc. are available from the Microsoft Store. Not only can you then use the powerful Linux terminal and commands but also the Linux GUI. One can even use a full-blown Linux desktop on Windows, although that’s not quite practical.

    Disclosure: Mashtips is supported by its audience. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.

    As a Linux administrator, sometimes you might be wondering whether you are working on a physical or virtual machine. Most of the time, you will be accessing and managing your servers remotely. You may not always have physical access of your servers, and you may not even actually know where the server is located. However, it is possible to check if your Linux system is physical or virtual machine using couple of Linux utilities. This guide lists all possible ways to check whether the Linux system you’re working on is a physical server or a virtual server.

    Check if a Linux system is physical or virtual machine

    There can be many ways to find if a system is physical or virtual. I am aware of the following methods at present. I will update if I find any other ways in the days to come.

    Method 1 – Using Dmidecode utility

    The easiest way to find if we are working on a virtual or physical machine is using dmidecode utility. Dmidecode, DMI table decoder, is used to find your system’s hardware components, as well as other useful information such as serial numbers and BIOS revision.

    Dmidecode comes pre-installed with most Linux distributions. Just in case, if it is not installed already, you can install it using your distribution’s package manager. Say for example, the following command will install dmidecode in DEB based systems such as Ubuntu, Linux Mint.

    After installing Dmidecode, run the following command to find out whether your system is a physical or virtual machine:

    If it is a physical system, you will get an output something like below.

    If it is virtual system created with Virtualbox, you will get the following output:

    For those wondering, innotek is a German-based software company that develops PC virtualization software called VirtualBox.

    If it is virtual system created with KVM/QEMU, the output will be:

    As you see in the above output, if it is a physical system, dmidecode will show the manufacturer’s name (i.e Dell Inc.). If it is a virtual system, then it will show the virtualization software/technology (i.e VirtualBox or QEMU).

    Also, you can use this command to check if it is physical or virtual system.

    Sample output:

    Another command to find out if it is a physical or virtual system is:

    Sample output:

    Yet another dmidecode command to find the remote system’s type is:

    Sample output:

    And, one more dmidecode command is to achieve the same goal:

    Sample output:

    Method 2 – Using Facter utility

    Facter is a command line utility to collect and display a system’s information. Unlike Dmidecode, Facter doesn’t comes pre-installed by default. You may need to install it as shown below depending upon the Linux distribution you use.

    In Arch Linux, Manjaro Linux:

    Once facter installed, run the following command to check if the system is physical or virtual machine:

    If this command doesn’t work, try with sudo privileges:

    Sample output:

    Alternatively, use the following command:

    If it is physical machine, the output will be:

    If it is virtual machine, you will see output something like below.

    Method 3 – Using lshw utility

    The lshw utility is a small command line utility that displays the detailed hardware information of a Unix-like system. It displays all hardware details including memory configuration, firmware version, mainboard configuration, CPU version and speed, cache configuration, bus speed, etc.

    Some Linux distributions comes pre-installed with lshw. If it is not installed already, you can install it as shown below.

    In Arch Linux and derivatives:

    In RHEL and derivatives such as CentOS, scientific Linux:

    In Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint:

    After installing lshw, run the following command to find out if your system is either physical or virtual:

    Sample output:

    Suggested read:

    Method 4 – Using dmesg utility

    We can find the system’s type using dmesg utility. dmesg is used to examine or control the kernel ring buffer.

    To check if your Linux system is physical or virtual, simply run:

    If your system is physical, you will not see any output.

    If your system is virtual machine, then you will see an output something like below.

    Method 5 – Using hostnamectl command

    We can find if out system is either virtual or physical using hostnamectl command. It requires systemd to work.

    Sample output:

    Method 6 – Using systemd-detect-virt

    The systemd-detect-virt tool detects the virtualization technology and can distinguish full machine virtualization from hardware or container virtualization.

    Run the following command to check if the system is physical or virtual:

    Sample output:

    Method 7 – Using virt-what script

    The virt-what is a small shell script developed at Red Hat to find if we are running in a virtual machine or physical machine. virt-what is packaged for all popular Linux distributions, such as RHEL, Fedora, CentOS, Debian, Ubuntu, Arch Linux (AUR).

    In Arch Linux, you can install it from AUR using any AUR helpers, for example Yay.

    In RHEL, Fedora, CentOS:

    On Debian, Ubuntu:

    Once installed, run the following command to display to find if your system is either physical or virtual:

    If nothing is printed and the script exits with code 0 (no error), then it means that either system is physical or a type of virtual machine which we don’t know about or cannot detect.

    If your system is Virtual, you will see an output like below.

    For more details, refer the project’s homepage.

    Method 8 – Using imvirt script

    The imvirt is yet another little perl script that helps you to detect if we’re running on a virtual machine.

    In Arch Linux, you can install it from AUR using Yay helper program.

    On Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint:

    Once installed, run the following command to display to find if your system is either physical or virtual:

    If your system is physical, the output would be:

    if the system is virtual, you will see:

    For more details, refer the project’s homepage.

    Related read:

    • How To Check If A Linux System Is 32 bit Or 64 Bit

    And, that’s all for now. If you know any other ways to find whether the Linux box is physical or virtual, let us know in the comment section. We will check and update the guide accordingly.

    Fedora uses the libvirt family of tools as its virtualization solution.

    Enabling hardware virtualization support

    This section covers setting up libvirt on your system. After setting up libvirt , you can create virtualized guest operating systems, also known as virtual machines.

    System requirements

    To run virtualization on Fedora, you need:

    At least 600MB of hard disk storage per guest. A minimal command-line Fedora system requires 600MB of storage. Standard Fedora desktop guests require at least 3GB of space.

    At least 256MB of RAM per guest, plus 256MB for the base operating system. At least 756MB is recommended for each guest of a modern operating system. A good way to estimate this is to think about how much memory is required for the operating system normally, and allocate that amount to the virtualized guest.

    KVM requires a CPU with virtualization extensions, found on most consumer CPUs. These extensions are called Intel VT or AMD-V. To check whether you have CPU support, run the following command:

    If this command results in nothing printed, your system does not support the relevant virtualization extensions. You can still use QEMU/KVM, but the emulator will fall back to software virtualization, which is much slower.

    Installing virtualization software

    When installing Fedora, you can install the virtualization packages by selecting Virtualization in the Base Group in the installer. See Installing Using Anaconda.

    For existing Fedora installations, you can install the virtualization tools via the command line using the Virtualization Package Group. To view the packages, run:

    Run the following command to install the mandatory and default packages in the virtualization group:

    Alternatively, to install the mandatory, default, and optional packages, run:

    After the packages install, start the libvirtd service:

    To start the service on boot, run:

    To verify that the KVM kernel modules are properly loaded:

    If this command lists kvm_intel or kvm_amd , KVM is properly configured.

    Networking Support

    By default, libvirt will create a private network for your guests on the host machine. This private network will use a 192.168.x.x subnet and not be reachable directly from the network the host machine is on. However, virtual guests can use the host machine as a gateway and can connect out via it. If you need to provide services on your guests that are reachable via other machines on your host network you can use iptables DNAT rules to forward in specific ports, or you can set up a bridged environment.

    See the libvirt networking setup page for more information on how to setup a bridged network.

    Creating virtual machines

    The installation of Fedora guests using Anaconda is supported. The installation can be started on the command-line using the virt-install program or in the user interface program virt-manager .

    Creating a guest with virt-install

    virt-install is a command-line based tool for creating virtualized guests. Execute virt-install –help for command line help, or you can find the manual page at man 1 virt-install .

    To use the virt-install command, you should first download an ISO of the Fedora version you wish to install. You can find the latest Fedora images at https://getfedora.org. This ISO is only needed during Fedora installation, and can be deleted to free up storage space afterwards if desired. More information about Fedora installation can be found in the Installation Guide. In this example we’ll use Fedora Workstation.

    Planning VM Resources

    Adjust the ram, vcpus, and disk size parameters according to the resources you have available.

    Storage: An easy way to check your disk size from a bash shell is using the df(1)` utility from the shell:

    Memory: You can check your available memory from the shell using free(1):

    VCPU: You can check your processor information using lscpu(1) :

    When allocating resources to your VM, keep in mind the minimum system requirements for the version of Fedora you are installing as well as your use case requirements. For Fedora 35, you can find this in the Release Notes.

    Create Storage for the VM

    The libvirt default storage pool is located at `/var/lib/libvirt/images – which is the parent file path we use in this example. For individuals who are lacking enough storage in that path, you can simply mount a new disk or partition to that directory path (from the BASH shell, type man 1 mount ) or select a new path. In the example virt-install command below, the disk did not exist prior to running virt-install. When the specified disk is not pre-existing, you must specify the size so virt-install can create a disk for you. If your disk already exists, you can safely remove the ,size=20 parameter from the disk argument.

    You have several disk storage options for your VM. While it’s outside the scope of this article to discuss these in detail, the following are a few common options. These examples use 20G as the upper limit for disk size, but you can adjust this size to fit your needs.

    Again, you do not need to manually allocate storage using the example options shown below if you specify the size parameter in the virt-install example shown below.

    A. If your processor supports AMD-v or Intel-VT, hardware virtualization support is available with Windows 2003 R2 SP1 and Virtual PC 2007. For Virtual PC 2007, you can enable the support via the Options dialog box. If the option isn’t available, the processor might not support hardware-assisted virtualization. Check the BIOS to see whether it’s disabled. You can also check on a specific virtual machine (VM).

    For Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1, you can enable hardware assistance for each VM by configuring the “Enable hardware-assisted virtualization if available” option on the Configuration page. To enable this support for all VMs, you can modify the options.xml file. Set the value of the key to true or false. For example, when support is turned on for all VMs, the key is set it to true as follows:



    true

    To confirm that a VM is running with hardware support, open the VM, start Performance Monitoring on the host OS (not the guest OS), and add the “HVM-VP is in HVM Mode” option from the Virtual Processors group. A value of 1 means hardware assistance is enabled, and a value of 0 means no hardware assistance.

    In this figure, I have two virtual processors, one with hardware assistance enabled (which has a value of 1) and one without hardware assistance enabled (which has a value of 0).

    This document describes how to enable nested virtualization on a virtual machine (VM) instance and how to confirm that you can create a nested VM. Enable nested virtualization on a VM by using one of the following methods:

    Recommended. Enable nested virtualization directly on a new or existing VM by setting the enableNestedVirtualization field to true while creating the VM or by updating the VM. This is the recommended method because it doesn’t require that you create a custom image or use the special license key.

    Enable nested virtualization by using the special license key by creating a boot disk, creating a custom image with the special nested virtualization license key, and then creating a VM that uses the custom image.

    Enabling nested virtualization directly on a new VM

    Permissions required for this task

    • For enabling nested virtualization directly on a new VM, you need the compute.instances.create permissions on the project, folder, or organization.

    Enable nested virtualization directly on a VM by using the following procedure.

    gcloud

    Create an L1 VM with nested virtualization enabled by using the following gcloud compute instances create command:

    Replace the following:

    VM_NAME : the name of the new L1 VM with nested virtualization enabled

    ZONE : the zone for the new L1 VM with nested virtualization enabled

    Create an L1 VM with nested virtualization enabled by using the following instances.insert method:

    Replace the following:

    PROJECT_ID : the project ID

    ZONE : the zone for the new L1 VM with nested virtualization enabled

    VM_NAME : the name of the new L1 VM with nested virtualization enabled

    Enabling nested virtualization directly on an existing VM

    Permissions required for this task

    • For enabling nested virtualization directly on a new VM, you need the compute.instances.create permissions on the project, folder, or organization.

    Enable nested virtualization on an existing VM by using the following procedure.

    gcloud

    Export the properties of the VM by using the following gcloud compute instances export command:

    Replace the following:

    VM_NAME : the name of the VM from which to export properties

    YAML_FILE_PATH : the path and file name of a .yaml file in which to save the exported configuration data

    ZONE : the zone that contains the VM

    In the VM configuration file that was saved in FILE_PATH , update the value for enableNestedVirtualization . If the value is not in the file, add the following:

    Update the VM with the value for enableNestedVirtualization by using the following gcloud compute instances update-from-file command:

    Replace the following:

    VM_NAME : the name of the VM to update

    FILE_PATH : the path to the updated VM configuration file

    ZONE : the zone that contains the VM to update

    Update the value for enableNestedVirtualization by using the following instances.update method:

    Replace the following:

    PROJECT_ID : the ID of the project

    ZONE : the zone that contains the VM

    VM_NAME : the name of the VM from which to export properties

    Enabling nested virtualization by using the special license key

    Permissions required for this task

    • compute.disks.create on the project, folder, or organization
    • compute.images.create on the project, folder, or organization
    • compute.disks.delete on the project, folder, or organization
    • compute.instances.create on the project, folder, or organization

    You can enable nested virtualization on VM by creating a custom image with a special license key that enables VMX on the L1 VM. The license key does not incur additional charges.

    Create a boot disk from a public image or from a custom image. The following example uses debian-cloud for the image project and debian-10 for the image family. If you already have a VM instance with an existing disk, you can skip this step.

    gcloud

    Replace the following:

    DISK_NAME : the name of the new disk

    ZONE : the zone to create the disk in

    Replace the following:

    PROJECT_ID : the project ID

    ZONE : the zone to create the disk in

    DISK_NAME : the name of the new disk

    Create a custom image with the special license key that is required for nested virtualization.

    gcloud

    Replace the following:

    IMAGE_NAME : the name of the new image

    DISK_NAME : the name of the previously created disk

    ZONE : the zone to create the image in

    Replace the following:

    PROJECT_ID : the project ID

    IMAGE_NAME : the name of the new image

    ZONE : the zone to create the image in

    DISK_NAME : the name of the previously created disk

    Optionally delete the source disk after creating the image with the special license.

    gcloud

    Replace the following:

    DISK_NAME : the name of the disk to delete

    ZONE : the zone containing the disk to delete

    Replace the following:

    PROJECT_ID : the project ID

    ZONE : the zone containing the disk to delete

    DISK_NAME : the name of the disk to delete

    Create a VM that uses the new image with the special license. The minimum CPU platform must be “Intel Haswell” .

    gcloud

    Replace the following:

    VM_NAME : the name of the VM

    ZONE : the zone to create the VM in

    IMAGE_NAME : the name of the previously created image

    Replace the following:

    PROJECT_ID : the project ID

    VM_NAME : the name of the VM

    ZONE : the zone to create the VM in

    IMAGE_NAME : the name of the previously created image

    Confirming that nested virtualization is enabled on the VM

    Connect to the VM instance.

    Replace VM_NAME with the name of the VM to connect to.

    Confirm that nested virtualization is enabled. A nonzero response confirms that nested virtualization is enabled.

    What’s next

    Except as otherwise noted, the content of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License, and code samples are licensed under the Apache 2.0 License. For details, see the Google Developers Site Policies. Java is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.

    I am needing to run 64 bit virtual machines and am having no luck.

    Motherboard = D946GZIS
    CPU = Intel [email protected] x2
    OS = Ubuntu 12.04 64 bit.
    Virtual Box version = 4.1.12-Ubuntu r77245

    The message says that VT-x is not enabled. The acceleration TAB under system is greyed out.

    Turned on virtualization in the BIOS.
    Upgraded to the latest Ubuntu version of Virtual Box.
    Upgraded the BIOS to the latest version. http://downloadcenter.intel.com/Deta. =2482&lang=eng (http://downloadcenter.intel.com/Detail_Desc.aspx?agr=Y&DwnldID=14847&ProdId=2482&lang=eng)

    I really need to get this working so I don’t have to go back to work in the evenings!

    Any ideas appreciated.

    I am needing to run 64 bit virtual machines and am having no luck.

    Shot in the dark here.

    I had this problem and tracked it down to also having qemu installed. I could run 32 bit os but not 64 bit. So I unload kvm_amd module whenever I need to run a 64bit o/s on VirtualBox.

    It appears that some of those processors, despite being dual core, may not have VT-x capability.

    Do you have any further information on date of manufacture, lot number, etc?

    Looks like the top markings should include “SLGTK”

    Question is: does your CPU support 64-bit virtualization or not? Intel seems to have different versions of this CPU. Try the command here:

    egrep ‘(vmx|svm)’ /proc/cpuinfo

    From this page:
    http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/linux/linux-tip-how-to-tell-if-your-processor-supports-vt/

    It appears that some of those processors, despite being dual core, may not have VT-x capability.

    Do you have any further information on date of manufacture, lot number, etc?

    Looks like the top markings should include “SLGTK”

    I recently put in a dual core CPU – the box says S-Spec : SLGTK

    Question is: does your CPU support 64-bit virtualization or not? Intel seems to have different versions of this CPU. Try the command here:

    egrep ‘(vmx|svm)’ /proc/cpuinfoFrom this page:
    http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/linux/linux-tip-how-to-tell-if-your-processor-supports-vt/

    No response – so unfortunately looks like no support for 64 bit virtual machines (bother).

    Shot in the dark here.

    I had this problem and tracked it down to also having qemu installed. I could run 32 bit os but not 64 bit. So I unload kvm_amd module whenever I need to run a 64bit o/s on VirtualBox.

    Not sure of the implications of what you are saying- will do some investigations.

    Doesn’t look like that is the problem?

    # rmmod kvm-intel
    ERROR: Module kvm_intel does not exist in /proc/modules
    [email protected]:

    # rmmod kvm-amd
    ERROR: Module kvm_amd does not exist in /proc/modules

    Have pretty much decided that the problem is the Intel [email protected] x2 CPU not being capable of 64 bit virtualization. Resigned to the fact I will have to purchase a new MB/CPU/RAM combination.

    Thanks for your responses.

    I recently put in a dual core CPU – the box says S-Spec : SLGTK

    Interesting, according to Intel, your CPU should be able to run VT-x:

    Is it possible that the Motherboard is acting up.

    Interesting, according to Intel, your CPU should be able to run VT-x:

    Is it possible that the Motherboard is acting up.

    May be true – but I have flashed the BIOS to the latest version so not much more I can do?

    To successfully deploy and run the BIG-IP VE system, the host system must satisfy minimum requirements.

    The host system must include:

    • RHEL, Ubuntu, Debian, or CentOS with the KVM package. The Virtual Edition and Supported Hypervisors Matrix , published on the AskF5 web site, http://support.f5.com identifies the Linux versions that are supported for each release, as well as which operating systems provide support for SR-IOV and TSO.
    • Virtual Machine Manager
    • Connection to a common NTP source (this is especially important for each host in a redundant system configuration)
    • Use 64-bit architecture.
    • Have support for virtualization (AMD-V or Intel VT-x) enabled.
    • Support a one-to-one thread-to-defined virtual CPU ratio, or (on single-threading architectures) support at least one core per defined virtual CPU.
    • If you use an Intel processor, it must be from the Core (or newer) workstation or server family of CPUs.

    SSL encryption processing on your VE will be faster if your host CPU supports the Advanced Encryption Standard New Instruction (AES-NI). Contact your CPU vendor for details on which CPUs provide AES-NI support.

    The hypervisor memory requirement depends on the number of licensed TMM cores. The table describes these requirements.

    Number of Cores Memory Required
    1 2 Gb
    2 4 Gb
    4 8 Gb
    8 16 Gb

    About BIG-IP VE KVM deployment

    To deploy the BIG-IP Virtual Edition (VE) system on Linux® KVM® , you need to perform these tasks:

    • Verify the host machine requirements.
    • Deploy an instance of the BIG-IP system as a virtual machine on a host system.
    • Power on the BIG-IP VE virtual machine.
    • Assign a management IP address to the BIG-IP VE virtual machine.

    After you complete these tasks, you can log in to the BIG-IP VE system and run the Setup utility. Using the Setup utility, you can perform basic network configuration tasks, such as assigning VLANs to interfaces.

    Deploying the BIG-IP VE virtual machine

    To create an instance of the BIG-IP system that runs as a virtual machine on the host system,complete the steps in this procedure.

    1. In a browser, open the F5 Downloads page ( https://downloads.f5.com ).
    2. Download the BIG-IP VE file package ending with qcow2.zip .
    3. Extract the file from the Zip archive and save it where your qcow2 files reside on the KVM server.
    4. Use VNC to access the KVM server, and then start Virt Manager .
    5. Right click localhost (QEMU) , and from the popup menu, select New . The Create a new virtual machine, Step 1 of 4 dialog box opens.
    6. In the Name field, type a name for the connection.
    7. Select import existing disk image as the method for installing the operating system, and click Forward . The Create a new virtual machine, Step 2 of 4 dialog box opens
    8. Type in the path to the extracted qcow file, or click Browse to navigate to the path location; select the file, and then click the Choose Volume button to fill in the path.
    9. In the OS type setting, select Linux , for the Version setting, select Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 , and click Forward . The Create a new virtual machine, Step 3 of 4 dialog box opens.
    10. In the Memory (RAM) field, type the appropriate amount of memory (in megabytes) for your deployment. (For example 4096 , for a 4GB deployment) . From the CPUs list, select the number of CPU cores appropriate for your deployment, and click Forward . The Create a new virtual machine, Step 4 of 4 dialog box opens.
    11. Select Customize configuration before install , and click the Advanced options arrow.
    12. Select the network interface adapter that corresponds to your management IP address, and click Finish . The Virtual Machine configuration dialog box opens.
    13. (If SR-IOV support is required, skip steps 13 – 15 and perform step 16 – 17 instead.) Click Add Hardware . When The Add New Virtual Hardware dialog box opens, select Network to access controls for specifying a new network interface device.
    14. From the Host device list, select the network interface adapter that corresponds to your external network, and from the Device model list, select virtio . Then click Finish .
    15. Repeat the last two steps, two more times. The first time you repeat them, select the network interface adapter that corresponds to your internal network. The second time you repeat them, select the network interface adapter that corresponds to your HA network.
    16. (Perform steps 16 – 17 only if SR-IOV support is required.) Click Add Hardware . When The Add New Virtual Hardware dialog box opens, select PCI Host Device , and then select the PCI device that corresponds to the virtual function mapped to your host device’s external VLAN. Then click Finish .
    17. Repeat step 16 two more times. The first time you repeat it, select the PCI device that corresponds to the virtual function mapped to your host device’s internal VLAN. The second time you repeat it, select the PCI device that corresponds to the virtual function mapped to your host device’s HA VLAN.
    18. From the left pane, select Disk 1 .
    19. Click the Advanced options button.
    20. From the Disk bus list, select Virtio .
    21. From the Storage format list, select qcow2 .
    22. Click Apply .
    23. Click Begin Installation . Virtual Machine Manager creates the virtual machine just as you configured it.

    Powering on the virtual machine

    1. Open Virtual Machine Manager.
    2. Right click the virtual machine that you want to power on, and then from the popup menu, select Open . The virtual machine opens, but in a powered-off state.
    3. From the toolbar, select the Power on the virtual machine (right-arrow) button. The virtual machine boots and then displays a login prompt.

    There are two default accounts used for initial configuration and setup:

    • The root account provides access locally, or using SSH, or using the F5 Configuration utility. The root account password is default .
    • The admin account provides access through the web interface. The admin account password is admin .

    You should change passwords for both accounts before bringing a system into production.

    Before installing or upgrading ArcGIS Pro on a virtual or physical machine, ensure your system meets the minimum requirements to run it. Also, learn what resources are recommended for the best performance.

    Supported operating systems

    ArcGIS Pro is supported on the Microsoft Windows operating systems listed below, given the operating system is also currently supported by its provider for general or public use. Prior and future updates or service packs on these operating system versions are supported unless otherwise stated.

    Windows 11 Home, Pro, and Enterprise (64 bit)

    November 2021 update

    Windows 10 Home, Pro, and Enterprise (64 bit)

    Feb 2021 update

    Windows 8.1 Pro and Enterprise (64 bit)

    Feb 2021 update

    Windows Server 2019 Standard and Datacenter (64 bit)

    Feb 2021 update

    Windows Server 2016 Standard and Datacenter (64 bit)

    Feb 2021 update

    Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard and Datacenter (64 bit)

    Feb 2021 update

    Windows Server 2012 Standard and Datacenter (64 bit)

    Feb 2021 update

    • Prior and future updates or service packs for these operating system versions are supported unless otherwise stated. The operating system version and updates must also be supported by the operating system provider.
    • The Desktop Experience option is required on all versions of Windows Server .

    Hardware requirements

    Minimum: 2 cores, simultaneous multithreading

    Simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, of CPUs typically features two threads per core. A multithreaded 2-core CPU will have four threads available for processing, while a multithreaded 6-core CPU will have 12 threads available for processing.

    Recommended: 4 cores

    Optimal: 10 cores

    Minimum: 32 GB of free space

    Recommended: 32 GB or more of free space on a solid-state drive (SSD)

    Recommended: 16 GB

    Optimal: 32 GB or more

    Dedicated (not shared) graphics memory

    Recommended: 4 GB or more

    If you’re using a notebook computer with an integrated GPU, consider increasing the system RAM to compensate for the usage of shared memory.

    The temporary visualization cache for ArcGIS Pro can consume up to 32 GB of space, if available, in the user-selected location. By default, the visualization cache is written to the user profile’s \Local subfolder, so it does not roam with the user profile if roaming profiles are enabled by your system administrator.

    Minimum: DirectX 11, feature level 11.0, Shader Model 5.0

    Minimum: OpenGL 4.3 with the ARB_clip_control and EXT_texture_compression_s3tc extensions

    Recommended: OpenGL 4.5 with the ARB_shader_draw_parameters, EXT_swap_control, EXT_texture_compression_s3tc, and EXT_texture_filter_anisotropic extensions

    1024×768 or higher

    Be sure to use the latest available driver.

    When using a GPU, ensure it is currently supported by the manufacturer.

    Cloud storage services, such as Microsoft OneDrive and Google Drive , are not supported unless stated otherwise in the documentation about specific tools and functionality. Learn more about ArcGIS Pro and cloud storage services.

    Software requirements

    The following software must be installed before installing ArcGIS Pro :

      — ArcGIS Pro is licensed through an organizational account on ArcGIS Online or ArcGIS Enterprise . If the license is through ArcGIS Online (the default option), licensing software is not required because ArcGIS Online is a cloud-based service provided by Esri .

    If the license is through ArcGIS Enterprise , you must install one of the versions indicated in the table below, along with a corresponding supported version of ArcGIS License Manager.

    Apple’s latest desktop workstation, the Mac Studio, is very tempting. Thanks to the new Apple M1 Ultra processor, the Mac Studio could well the most powerful Mac yet, even competing with the “cheese grater” Mac Pro. Out of the box, the Mac Studio will run macOS Monterey, but what if you want to leverage that power in a different OS? If you’re wondering whether you can run Linux on the Mac Studio, we have both good and bad news for you.

    The bad news is that it’s still not possible to run Linux – or Windows, for that matter – natively on macOS. While Intel-based models made it easier to install different operating systems, Macs running Apple Silicon are more locked down. The silver lining here is that you can run Linux on the Mac Studio, but it’ll have to be through a virtual machine.

    Using a VM to run Linux on the Mac Studio

    If you really want to use a Linux distribution with the Mac Studio, you’re first going to need virtualization software that supports the Arm architecture. There are some options here, but a great solution is Parallels Desktop 17. This virtualization software allows you to run Windows, Linux, and other operating systems on macOS, including Apple Silicon Macs. It’s paid software, though, so you’ll have to shell out at least $99.99 for a perpetual license, or $79.99 per year if you want the subscription model.

    Parallels Desktop actually makes it very easy to run Linux on macOS, since you get the option to download your preferred Linux distribution, with options including Ubuntu, Fedora, Debian, or Kali Linux. You may be able to use other distributions, but you’ll need to make sure they offer images for Arm devices, which many don’t. Most operating systems are still designed for x86 or AMD64 processors, so you’re probably better off using one of the images made available to you.

    This is actually easier than using Windows on macOS, since that requires you to download a preview version of Windows separately and set it up yourself (plus you’d be stuck running an unfinished version of Windows). Another advantage of running Linux in Parallels is that you can use something called Coherence mode. This actually makes it possible to open Linux apps right next to your Mac apps, to the point where you see your Linux apps on the macOS dock. You don’t have to go into the Linux interface every time, which is something you can’t do on Windows.

    If you want a free solution to run Linux on the Mac Studio, another option is using an app called UTM. It’s available for free on the official UTM website or for $9.99 on the Mac App Store, and it also offers a relatively easy setup for Linux. Thanks to the gallery of available operating systems, you can also easily set up a new virtual machine and get started. However, you don’t get a feature like Coherence mode, but that’s something not everyone will need.

    If this has convinced you to get the Mac Studio, you can order it below. Most configurations are only available from Apple directly, but buying from Best Buy may be more reliable for some customers. Shipping dates seem to be delayed by a couple of weeks due to high demand, which isn’t too surprising considering this is one of the best Macs you can buy right now. You can also bay Paralells Desktop below if you choose to go that route for virtualization.

    This basically means that if you have an older system that has an older CPU, you should check whether this system will be supported with ESXi 7.0. Today’s article is focused on vSphere 7.0 and unsupported CPUs.

    Before upgrading your ESXi to 7.0, you have to upgrade your vCenter Server. Here is our detailed article: How to Upgrade to vCenter 7.0

    When you try to install ESXi 7.0 on a server with an unsupported CPU, you’ll see a message like this.

    Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    VMware ESXi unsupported CPU message

    However, there is also a workaround that allows you to bypass the ESXi unsupported CPU check. We’ll talk about this later because the workaround is unsupported by VMware.

    ESXi 7.0 hardware requirements ^

    • CPU details: VMware ESXi0 basically needs a CPU with at least two CPU cores, which is the majority of CPUs today.
    • BIOS Settings: NX/XD bit to be enabled for the CPU in the BIOS.
    • 4 Gb of RAM: This is the bare minimum, but as virtualization needs memory for your VMs, the more you have, the better.
    • Modern Guest OS: If you want to run 64-bit VMs, you’ll need support for Intel VT-x or AMD RVI, which must be enabled on x64 CPUs within the BIOS.
    • Boot Device: 8 GB for USB or SD devices, and 32 GB for other device types such as HDD, SSD, or NVMe.
    • Storage: SCSI, SATA via supported storage controller.

    Note: Due to changes in the partitioning scheme, you can no longer revert to the previous version of ESXi (via SHIFT-R). This was always the case with VMware ESXi; however, now, you’d have to create a backup of the boot device before the upgrade.

    ESXi 7.0 unsupported CPUs ^

    There are two family models that are no longer compatible and won’t work under ESXi 7.0. Those CPUs were basically made during the 2010 era, so it’s about time for them to retire.

    • Intel Family 6, Model = 2C (Westmere-EP)
    • Intel Family 6, Model = 2F (Westmere-EX)

    The Westmere-EP architecture was based on two- to six-core CPUs, while Westmere-EX was a ten-core CPU model. This was Intel’s CPU architecture right after Nehalem (my first lab). It was about 10 years ago, yes.

    Now you might wonder how to easily check whether the CPU is compatible and supported or not.

    Check the CPU model in the VMware Compatibility Guide ^

    You can check the CPU by going to the compatibility page at VMware.

    From the list selection, you can select the ESXi model and CPU series. Then hit the Update and View Results button.

    Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    Select ESXi 7.0 and your CPU model

    The page will refresh and show you the results of the server model with the CPU and supported ESXi 7.0 version.

    If you don’t see any results, your CPU is not supported. Try with a newer CPU if you think you’re having issues.

    Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    Server device and model information

    Workarounds ^

    Are there workarounds? Yes, of course. The first is advice to someone who is looking to run VMware virtualization software on older hardware. If your hardware is 4–5 years old, you might hit the limit of compatibility (or you will soon), but for now, you should still be able to run ESXi 7.0.

    If your system is not listed on the VMware compatibility page, you can still run your ESXi 7.0 on it, but don’t expect Support to help you out if you hit some hard problem.

    You can still run some less critical production workloads or your company monitoring solution on that hardware, but most likely, you’d want to sell this hardware and purchase newer equipment.

    If you still want to run an ESXi 7.0 and you know that your CPU is not supported and your installation gets you to the page with an error message, there is a solution.

    Disclaimer: Note that I have not personally tested this solution as I don’t have an old CPU to perform the tests. The solution was described in VMware forums and on a few blogs. So, take it or leave it.

    You’ll have to be directly at the server console or remotely via ILO, DRAC, or IPMI. When you run the installer, use this shortcut:

    Shift + O

    (Note: this is the letter “O,” not the zero “0”).

    Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    Enter Shift plus O

    That changes the screen to the one below and allows you to enter a special parameter that enables you to bypass the validation during the installation/upgrade.

    Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    Allow Legacy CPU value

    Remember that this is not supported by VMware.

    Note that the parameter you entered to bypass the installer will be lost after reboot. If you want to keep this value, you have to edit the boot.cfg file, which is located on the media you’re booting from. You may be booting from a local SATA drive, USB stick, or other media, so it depends on your configuration.

    Basically, you have to edit the boot.cfg file located in two places on the boot media. You can find this file in /bootbank/boot.cfg and in /altbootbank/boot.cfg.

    There is a “kernelopt” section where you can append this parameter.

    Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    Allow Legacy CPU via SSH

    This is not advice to proceed or not to proceed. It’s a tip, and you can use it if you want. Personally, as I said, I would not use it to “force” a run on a production system, but this can be a perfect fit on test or home lab systems that still work and that can be used for learning or running test scenarios.

    Subscribe to 4sysops newsletter!

    Conclusion ^

    As you can see, checking the hardware for compatibility on the VMware site isn’t difficult. It might also be interesting to check for network interface cards (NICs), as with ESXi 7.0, many legacy Linux drivers have been phased out. As those drivers were necessary to run, for example, many Realtek-based NICs, it seems those will no longer work under ESXi 7.0. But you can still upgrade your NICs to supported ones or seek another workaround if there is one. Good luck.

    Like many other virtualization solutions, UTM allows you to share a folder on your computer with a virtual machine running inside UTM. The following instructions are for Linux, and may be adaptable to Windows guests, but that has not been tested.

    1. First, when you launch UTM, go to the VM you’d like to share files with. In the configuration details at the bottom, you will see a line called “Shared Folders”. Click here and choose “Browse” to select a folder you want to share with the guest. In the dialog that comes up, select the folder you’d like to share. This could be your desktop, or a folder you create specifically for this VM. The VM will only be able to access the contents of this folder.
      Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt
    2. Next, start the VM. Once logged in, open a file window, such as your home directory. In Ubuntu, you can navigate to the “Other Locations” tab on the left, and should be presented with a few options for network storage.
      Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt
    3. Here, we want to select “Spice Client Folder”. This is where UTM shares files with the guest. If you get the following error, give the system a few minutes and try again – it takes some time after starting the VM for the share to become available.
      Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt
    4. Once the VM and host are ready, you should see a new folder appear with an eject icon next to it. This is your shared folder from UTM.
      Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt
    5. Open this folder and you should see the contents from your host machine. Now you can share files back and forth with your VM!
      Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    In a previous article, we put together a list of 10 useful commands to collect system and hardware information in Linux. In this guide, we will narrow down to the CPU/processor, and show you various ways of extracting detailed information about your machine CPU.

    Just to give you an overview, we will query information such as CPU architecture, vendor_id, model, model name, number of CPU cores, speed of each core, and lots more.
    Essentially, the /proc/cpuinfo contains this all info, every other command/utility gets its output from this file.

    With that said, below are 9 commands for getting info about your Linux CPU.

    1. Get CPU Info Using cat Command

    You can simply view the information of your system CPU by viewing the contents of the /proc/cpuinfo file with the help of cat command as follows:

    To get a little specific, you can employ the grep command – a CLI tool for searching plain-text data for lines matching a regular expression. This can help you only output vendor name, model name, number of processors, number of cores, etc:

    2. lscpu Command – Shows CPU Architecture Info

    The command lscpu prints CPU architecture information from sysfs and /proc/cpuinfo as shown below:

    3. cpuid Command – Shows x86 CPU

    The command cpuid dumps complete information about the CPU(s) collected from the CPUID instruction, and also discover the exact model of x86 CPU(s) from that information.

    Make sure to install it before running it.

    Once installed, run cpuid to collect information concerning the x86 CPU.

    4. dmidecode Command – Shows Linux Hardware Info

    dmidecode is a tool for retrieving hardware information of any Linux system. It dumps a computer’s DMI (a.k.a SMBIOS) table contents in a human-readable format for easy retrieval. The SMBIOS specification defines various DMI types, for CPU, use “processor” as follows:

    5. Inxi Tool – Shows Linux System Information

    Inxi is a powerful command-line system information script intended for both console and IRC (Internet Relay Chat). You can use it to instantly retrieve hardware information.

    You can install like so:

    To display complete CPU information, including per CPU clock-speed and CPU max speed (if available), use the -C flag as follows:

    6. lshw Tool – List Hardware Configuration

    lshw is a minimal tool for gathering in-depth information on the hardware configuration of a computer. You can use the -C option to select the hardware class, CPU in this case:

    7. hardinfo – Shows Hardware Info in GTK+ Window

    hardinfo displays hardware information in a GTK+ window, you can install it as follows:

    Once you have it installed, type:

    Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    It also enables you to generate a system hardware info report by clicking on the “Generate Report” button. From the interface below, click on “Generate” to proceed. Note that you can choose the hardware info category to be generated.

    Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    Once you have generated the report in html format, you can view it from a web browser as shown below.

    Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    8. hwinfo – Shows Present Hardware Info

    hwinfo is used to extract info about the hardware present in a Linux system. To display info about your CPU, use the –cpu

    9. nproc – Print Number of Processing Units

    nproc command is used to show the number of processing unit present on your computer:

    For additional usage info and options, read through the man pages of these commands like this:

    That’s it for now! You can share with us additional ways of extracting CPU information in Linux via the feedback form below.

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    2 thoughts on “9 Useful Commands to Get CPU Information on Linux”

    The CPU information includes details about the processor, like the architecture, vendor name, model, number of cores, a speed of each core etc. There are quite a few commands on Linux to get those details about the CPU hardware, and here is about some of the commands.

    1. /proc/cpuinfo
    2. lscpu
    3. hardinfo
    4. lshw
    5. nproc
    6. dmidecode
    7. cpuid
    8. inxi

    Thanks a lot for sharing this useful list.

    Got something to say? Join the discussion. Cancel reply

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    See Background jobs for a description and the benefits.

    Reducing system load

    High system load will slow down Nextcloud and might also lead to other unwanted side effects. To reduce load you should first identify the source of the problem. Tools such as htop, iotop, netdata or glances will help to identify the process or the drive that slows down your system. First you should make sure that you installed/assigned enough RAM. Swap usage should be prevented by all means. If you run your database inside a VM, you should not store it inside a VM image file. Better put it on a dedicated block device to reduce latency due to multiple abstraction layers.

    Caching

    Caching improves performance by storing data, code, and other objects in memory. Memory cache configuration for the Nextcloud server must be installed and configured. See Memory caching .

    Using MariaDB/MySQL instead of SQLite

    MySQL or MariaDB are preferred because of the performance limitations of SQLite with highly concurrent applications, like Nextcloud.

    See the section Database configuration for how to configure Nextcloud for MySQL or MariaDB. If your installation is already running on SQLite then it is possible to convert to MySQL or MariaDB using the steps provided in Converting database type .

    For more details and help tuning your database, check this article at MariaDB.

    Using Redis-based transactional file locking

    File locking is enabled by default, using the database locking backend. This places a significant load on your database. See the section Transactional file locking for how to configure Nextcloud to use Redis-based Transactional File Locking.

    TLS / encryption app

    TLS (HTTPS) and file encryption/decryption can be offloaded to a processor’s AES-NI extension. This can both speed up these operations while lowering processing overhead. This requires a processor with the AES-NI instruction set.

    Here are some examples how to check if your CPU / environment supports the AES-NI extension:

    For each CPU core present: grep flags /proc/cpuinfo or as a summary for all cores: grep -m 1 ‘^flags’ /proc/cpuinfo If the result contains any aes , the extension is present.

    Search eg. on the Intel web if the processor used supports the extension Intel Processor Feature Filter You may set a filter by “AES New Instructions” to get a reduced result set.

    For versions of openssl >= 1.0.1, AES-NI does not work via an engine and will not show up in the openssl engine command. It is active by default on the supported hardware. You can check the openssl version via openssl version -a

    If your processor supports AES-NI but it does not show up eg via grep or coreinfo, it is maybe disabled in the BIOS.

    If your environment runs virtualized, check the virtualization vendor for support.

    Enable HTTP/2 for faster loading

    HTTP/2 has huge speed improvements over HTTP with multiple request. Most browsers already support HTTP/2 over TLS (HTTPS). Refer to your web server manual for guides on how to enable HTTP/2.

    Tune PHP-FPM

    If you are using a default installation of PHP-FPM you might have noticed excessive load times on the web interface or even sync issues. This is due to the fact that each simultaneous request of an element is handled by a separate PHP-FPM process. So even on a small installation you should allow more processes to run in parallel to handle the requests.

    This link can help you calculate the good values for your system.

    Enable PHP OPcache

    The OPcache improves the performance of PHP applications by caching precompiled bytecode. The default OPcache settings are usually sufficient for Nextcloud code to be fully cached. If any cache size limit is reached by more than 90%, the admin panel will show a related warning. Nextcloud strictly requires code comments to be preserved in opcode, which is the default. But in case PHP settings are changed on your system, you may need set the following:

    By default, cached scripts are revalidated on access to ensure that changes on disk take effect after at most 2 seconds. Since Nextcloud handles cache revalidation internally when required, the revalidation frequency can be reduced or completely disabled to enhance performance. Note, however, that it affects manual changes to scripts, including config.php . To check for changes at most every 60 seconds, use the following setting:

    To disable the revalidation completely:

    Any change to config.php will then require either restarting PHP, manually clearing the cache, or invalidating this particular script.

    For more details check out the official documentation. To monitor OPcache usage, clear individual or all cache entries, opcache-gui can be used.

    Macs powered by ‌Apple silicon do not support Windows and there is no Boot Camp feature like there is on Intel Macs, but support for Windows is a feature that many users would like to see.

    alt=”Windows 11 Parallels Feature” width=”2950″ height=”1659″ />
    However, Microsoft has dampened hopes that Windows will ever work on Apple silicon, saying that running an Arm version of Windows 11 on M1 Macs, via virtualization or otherwise, is not “a supported scenario.”

    A Microsoft spokesperson made the comments to The Register on Friday, suggesting that neither native support for Apple silicon nor support through virtualization is something the software giant is considering for its Arm architectures.

    Apple’s ‌‌M1‌‌ chip is a custom Arm SoC, so it’s not possible to install the x86 version of Windows or x86 Windows apps using Boot Camp, as was the case with previous Intel-based Macs.

    However, in November 2020, shortly after Apple debuted its first ‌M1‌ Macs, a developer was able to virtualize the Arm version of Windows on Apple’s ‌‌M1‌‌ chip with no emulation, igniting hopes that official support would be developed down the line.

    In the meantime, users have been using Parallels virtualization software to run Insider builds of Windows 10 and Windows 11 developed for Arm hardware, but there are indications that this route may soon be no longer viable, either.

    As noted by The Register, last week a Windows 11 Virtual Machine running on an ‌M1‌ Mac with Parallels Desktop 17 began throwing up a hardware compatibility error on an Insider build. Parallels has since released version 17.0.1 of its software, which seems to resolve the issue, allowing Windows 11 to again run on ‌M1‌ Macs, for now at least.

    How Parallels has achieved this is unclear, and we have reached out to them for comment, including whether support is still a long-term goal. The company previously promised full support for Windows on Apple silicon when the operating system launches in October.

    Apple’s software engineering chief Craig Federighi last year said that Windows coming to ‌‌M1‌‌ Macs is “up to Microsoft.” The ‌‌M1‌‌ chip contains the core technologies needed to run Windows, but Microsoft has to decide whether to license its Arm version of Windows to Mac users.

    A longer-than-usual release cycle results in improvements for virtualization, wireless mesh networking, multimedia and other features.

    Open source developers on Sunday released the latest stable version of the Linux kernel, version 2.6.26, adding improvements for wireless, virtualization, multimedia and other features.

    New kernel editions are normally adopted as rapidly as possible into mainstream Linux operating system distributions, bringing the new features directly into use on production systems.

    The new kernel appears three months after version 2.6.25, a longer-than-usual release cycle, Linux creator Linus Torvalds said in an e-mail announcing the release.

    Among the most significant improvements are changes to the Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) virtualization software, first included in the kernel in February of last year. KVM normally uses the technique of full virtualization, which simulates all the underlying hardware necessary to run a given client system, with the support of virtualization technologies built into AMD and Intel chips. The latest kernel update adds limited support for paravirtualization, a technique that only partially virtualizes the hardware in order to improve performance.

    KVM has also, for the first time, been ported to non-x86 hardware platforms Intel IA64 and IBM PPC and S/390, developers said.

    The new kernel builds on the wireless stack added in version 2.6.22 by adding support for the draft wireless mesh standard 802.11s, using work provided by the Open80211s project. Mesh is a network topology in which nodes act as relays for each other, providing the potential of better redundancy and higher overall throughput than in a traditional star topography.

    With version 2.6.26, the kernel for the first time gets a built-in debugger, despite Linus Torvalds’s previous warnings against such things. In an e-mail quoted with the new kernel’s release notes, Torvalds said not having a built-in debugger forces users to be more careful. “I happen to believe that not having a kernel debugger forces people to think about their problem on a different level than with a debugger,” he wrote. The remote debugger KGDB will nevertheless appear in the kernel due to popular demand, developers said.

    Other additions to the kernel include improved Webcam support with a driver for UVC devices, a built-in memory tester, support for the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) project, new features for a virtualization technology called containers, and various new drivers.

    Most of the IT sector has migrated to the virtual environment (not just IT and many tech companies) to reduce infrastructure costs.

    But they still have physical servers for some specific purpose.

    In recent days we have received some mail requests regarding this topic.

    We don’t have a proper test environment to work with, but we now have a small test environment with VMware and VirtualBox.

    So today we had the opportunity to write an article to verify whether the machine is physical or virtual.

    As a Linux server administrator, you need to know whether the machine is physical or virtual in your environment. This can be very helpful if you want to fix anything on the system.

    Popular Virtualization Technology KVM, OpenVZ, Xen and MWare, VirtualBox are popular virtualization software.

    There are many ways to identify the state of the machine (physical or virtual) in Linux. Here, we have listed ten simple methods to determine it.

    Method-1: How to Check Whether the Linux Server is Physical or Virtual Using the dmidecode Command

    The dmidecode command reads the system DMI (Desktop Management Interface) table to display about your system’s hardware and BIOS information. The table has system manufacturer, model name, serial number, BIOS version, CPU sockets, expansion slots, memory module slots, and the list of I/O ports, etc.

    The above output clearly shows the appropriate virtualization name. It displays the manufacturer name if it’s a physical server.

    Method-2: How to Check if Linux Server is Physical or Virtual Using the lshw Command

    The lshw command (Hardware Lister) is a small tool to provide detailed information on the hardware configuration of the machine. It can report exact memory configuration, firmware version, mainboard configuration, CPU version and speed, cache configuration, bus speed, etc. on DMI-capable x86 or EFI (IA-64) systems and on some PowerPC machines (​PowerMac G4 is known to work).

    For VMware system

    For VirtualBox system

    lshw Command Output in Physical Server

    Method-3: How to Check Whether the Linux Server is Physical or Virtual Using the facter Command

    Facter is a standalone tool based on Ruby that provides system information.

    Method-4: How to Check if Linux Server is Physical or Virtual Using the imvirt Command

    imvirt is a set of Perl modules which used to detect whether the Linux box is physical or virtual. If it detects that it is a virtualized one, then it tries to find out which virtualization technology is used.

    Method-5: How to Check Whether the Linux Server is Physical or Virtual Using the virt-what Command

    virt-what is a small shell script which can be used to detect if the Linux box is running in a virtual machine. Also its print the virtualization technology is used. If nothing is printed and the script exits with code 0 (no error), then it physical server.

    Method-6: How to Check if Linux Server is Physical or Virtual Using the systemd-detect-virt Command

    systemd-detect-virt detects execution in a virtualized environment. It identifies the virtualization technology and can distinguish full machine virtualization from container virtualization.

    Method-7: How to Check Whether the Linux Server is Physical or Virtual Using the hostnamectl Command

    The hostnamectl tool is provided to administrate the system hostname. There are three separate classes of host names in use on a given system, static, pretty, and transient.

    VirtualBox Output

    Physical Output

    Method-8: How to Check if Linux Server is Physical or Virtual Using the hwinfo Command

    The hwinfo command is used to probe for the hardware present in the system. It can be used to generate a system overview log which can be later used for support.

    Method-9: How to Check Whether the Linux Server is Physical or Virtual Using the lscpu Command

    lscpu – display information on CPU architecture and gathers CPU architecture information like number of CPUs, threads, cores, sockets, NUMA nodes, information about CPU caches, CPU family, model and prints it in a human-readable format.

    Note: The hypervisor option will not be listed if it’s a physical server.

    Method-10: How to Check if Linux Server is Physical or Virtual Using the inxi Command

    The inxi command is a script that quickly shows system hardware, CPU, drivers, Xorg, Desktop, Kernel, GCC version(s), Processes, RAM usage, and a wide variety of other useful information, also used for forum technical support & debugging tool.

    There are a number of ways you can get information about the processor on your Linux system. I’ll show you my favorite tool for this task along with a few additional ways to check CPUs in Linux.

    Get CPU info with lscpu command

    This is the simplest command that shows the CPU information in a simple and concise output.

    You can see the architecture of your system, number of processors, vendor information, cache information, processor speed etc.

    It’s easier to remember as well because it is similar to the ls command. You can think of it as ‘list cpu’.

    Well… that’s the processor information for my system and it should look somewhat similar for your Linux system as well.

    As you can see, the most important information is that my system has Intel i5-7200U processor. I can go and search on the web for this model number to get more information.

    But what does other fields in the output mean? What information do you really have about the processor here? Let me explain it to you. The information is too technical so you should have some basic understanding of the terms here.

    lscpu command output explanation

    The architecture for my system is 64-bit. Which means it’s a 64-bit processor.

    The CPU op-mods are 32 bit and 64 bit meaning that it can operate both as a 32-bit and 64-bit processor. In other words, you can install both 32-bit and 64-bit operating systems on it.

    Byte order is Little Endian. Which means that bytes are arranged as per Little Endian order.

    The next 4 lines tells you about the number of processors, CPUs/cores and threads. I would suggest reading this article to understand a bit about processors. This picture from Intel also helps in visualizing what socket, CPU, core, threads mean.

    Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    Image Source: Intel

    We have to go in the reverse order here. My system has 1 socket here which means it has one single chip for the CPUs.

    That one socket has 2 cores. It means that the single chip has two physical CPUs on it. This tells you the number of real cores i.e. the actual physical CPUs.

    And as you can see, each core has two threads. Threads are basically logical CPUs. The threads share physical execution resources of the physical core but the operating system sees them as separate cores. Read more on hyper- threading here.

    In short, my system has one chip that contains two physical CPUs and each CPU is divided into two logical CPUs. And thus my dual core system is seen as having 4 CPUs by the operating system.

    There is one NUMA node, the vendor is Intel and the CPU family is 6.

    The CPU model number is 142 (not relevant in my opinion) and the model name is Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-7200U CPU @ 2.50GHz (most important info).

    Stepping is a number used by Intel to identify what level of design change a microprocessor was built to.

    The current clock speed of my CPU is 900.054 MHz whereas its maximum capacity is 3100 MHz and 400 MHz.

    BogoMIPS is “the number of million times per second a processor can do absolutely nothing”.

    Virtualization is VT-x and is used to “help accelerate virtual machines created in VirtualBox, VMware, Hyper-V, and other apps”.

    The next four entries are about cache. It has L1D (data cache) of 32K, L1I (instruction cache) of 32K, L2 cache of 256K and L3 cache of 3072K. Read this wiki page to get quick info on CPU caches.

    Next is NUMA node for each CPU (both logical and physical CPUs).

    The last line is the list of feature flags that are manufacturer specific. You may read more about them here.

    This picture summarizes the most important processor information you get from the lscpu command.

    Linux tip how to tell if your processor supports vt

    Essential CPU information in Linux

    In my opinion, lscpu command is more than enough to give you all the information you need.

    Other commands to check CPU information in Linux

    There are other ways to get CPU info in Linux command line. Let me show them one by one. However, I won’t go in detail to explain their output.

    1. Check the content of /proc/cpuinfo

    If you are aware of the directory structure in Linux, you already know that proc is a special directory in Linux. It’s actually a virtual filesystem that contains runtime system information such as system memory, devices mounted, hardware configuration etc.

    If you want CPU information, you can read the content of the cpuinfo file in proc directory.

    You would note that cpuinfo file has detailed information on each core of the processor.

    For example, the first core of my CPU has the following information:

    If you just want to number of CPU cores (including both physical and logical ones), you can use the grep command with the wc command.

    2. Use lshw command

    lshw stands for ‘list hardware’. Quite obviously, it means to list the hardware information.

    Since the lshw command provides information about all the hardware on your system, it will be difficult to find exactly what you are looking for.

    This is why lshw command provides option to narrow down your intended search.

    To show only the processor information, you can use the lshw command in the following way:

    This will show an output like this:

    3. Use hwinfo

    hwinfo is another command line tool to get hardware information of your Linux system.

    You probably have to install hwinfo tool first. On Debian and Ubuntu, you can use the apt command to install it.

    Once installed, you can get the CPU details in this way:

    You’ll see an output similar to this for each core of the CPU:

    4. dmidecode Command

    dmidecode is another command to retrieve various kind of hardware information of your Linux system. You can check memory usage in Linux with it. You can also use it to get only the processor information.

    This command needs sudo access as well. You’ll see an output like this:

    Conclusion

    Of course, there are many more tools that provide you hardware information in Linux. You can utilize them to get CPU info as well.

    In my opinion, lscpu is the best command if you don’t want to remember anything. You can also rely on /proc/cpuinfo file. Just use these two and you’ll be set.

    Since you learned to check CPU info, maybe you would like to read about checking the disk info in Linux as well.

    I hope you liked this tutorial. If you have questions or suggestions, please leave a comment below.